How to format your references using the Explorations in Economic History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Explorations in Economic History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Altounian, V., 2015. Cover stories: From plot to finish: Visualizing martian atmospheric data from MAVEN in CINEMA 4D with Python. Science 350, 597.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mogilner, A., Oster, G., 2003. Cell biology. Shrinking gels pull cells. Science 302, 1340–1341.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carr, S., Heard, D.E., Blitz, M.A., 2009. Comment on “Atmospheric hydroxyl radical production from electronically excited NO2 and H2O.” Science 324, 336; author reply 336.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gasperini, D., Blichert-Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Télouk, P., Albarède, F., 2000. Evidence from Sardinian basalt geochemistry for recycling of plume heads into the Earth’s mantle. Nature 408, 701–704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Agachi, P.Ş., Nagy, Z.K., Cristea, M.V., Imre-Lucaci, Á., 2006. Model Based Control. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Hahn, H., Sidorenko, A., Tiginyanu, I. (Eds.), 2009. Nanoscale Phenomena: Fundamentals and Applications, NanoScience and Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tzvetkov, M.V., Dalila, N., Faltraco, F., 2016. Genetic Variability in Organic Cation Transporters: Pathophysiological Manifestations and Consequences for Drug Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy, in: Ciarimboli, G., Gautron, S., Schlatter, E. (Eds.), Organic Cation Transporters: Integration of Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 93–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Explorations in Economic History.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Bluebirds Shout Their Songs When it Gets Noisy [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Social Security Administration: Internet Access to Personal Earnings and Benefits Information (No. T-AIMD/HEHS-97-123). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felsburg, D.F., 2008. The business of evangelism: A phenomenological study of frustration and attrition among Christian evangelists (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J., 2016. Playing a Beautiful Game. New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Altounian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Altounian, 2015; Mogilner and Oster, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mogilner and Oster, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Gasperini et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleExplorations in Economic History
AbbreviationExplor. Econ. Hist.
ISSN (print)0014-4983
Economics and Econometrics

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