How to format your references using the Explorations in Economic History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Explorations in Economic History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hatten, M.E., 2002. New directions in neuronal migration. Science 297, 1660–1663.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meyer, E., Glatzel, T., 2009. Applied physics. Novel probes for molecular electronics. Science 324, 1397–1398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, W., Shimada, S., Tanaka, M., 2002. Synthesis and structure of formally hexavalent palladium complexes. Science 295, 308–310.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Konishi, S., Izawa, T., Lin, S.Y., Ebana, K., Fukuta, Y., Sasaki, T., Yano, M., 2006. An SNP caused loss of seed shattering during rice domestication. Science 312, 1392–1396.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosplock, K., 2017. The Complete Direct Investing Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ren, F., 2014. Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dufour, F., Prieto-Rumeau, T., 2012. Approximation of Infinite Horizon Discounted Cost Markov Decision Processes, in: Hernández-Hernández, D., Minjárez-Sosa, J.A. (Eds.), Optimization, Control, and Applications of Stochastic Systems: In Honor of Onésimo Hernández-Lerma. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp. 59–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Explorations in Economic History.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. 10 Lies You Were Probably Taught In School [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Telecommunications: FCC Needs to Improve Performance Management and Strengthen Oversight of the High-Cost Program (No. GAO-08-633). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroeder, S.K., 2017. Tau-Directed Immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s Disease (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Scouting Report. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hatten, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hatten, 2002; Meyer and Glatzel, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meyer and Glatzel, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Konishi et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleExplorations in Economic History
AbbreviationExplor. Econ. Hist.
ISSN (print)0014-4983
Economics and Econometrics

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