How to format your references using the Explorations in Economic History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Explorations in Economic History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Verrijzer, C.P., 2001. Transcription factor IID--not so basal after all. Science 293, 2010–2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higuchi, T., Uhlmann, F., 2005. Stabilization of microtubule dynamics at anaphase onset promotes chromosome segregation. Nature 433, 171–176.
A journal article with 3 authors
del Campo, A., Goold, J., Paternostro, M., 2014. More bang for your buck: super-adiabatic quantum engines. Sci. Rep. 4, 6208.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Janata, P., Birk, J.L., Van Horn, J.D., Leman, M., Tillmann, B., Bharucha, J.J., 2002. The cortical topography of tonal structures underlying Western music. Science 298, 2167–2170.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schiesser, W.E., 2017. Spline Collocation Methods for Partial Differential Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Greene, R.E., 2011. The Geometry of Complex Domains, Progress in Mathematics. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Lorini, F.L., Sorbara, C., Cattaneo, S., 2012. Ultrasound Morphology of the Heart: Transesophageal Examination, in: Sarti, A., Lorini, F.L. (Eds.), Echocardiography for Intensivists. Springer, Milano, pp. 51–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Explorations in Economic History.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. NASA Unveils Its Plan To Send Humans To Mars Permanently [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Transportation Infrastructure: Central Artery/Tunnel Project Faces Financial Uncertainties (No. RCED-96-131). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fu, J., 2013. Tartuffe Lab: A developing work (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016. Oh, Forget That Love Stuff. All You Need Is Selfishness. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Verrijzer, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Higuchi and Uhlmann, 2005; Verrijzer, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Higuchi and Uhlmann, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Janata et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleExplorations in Economic History
AbbreviationExplor. Econ. Hist.
ISSN (print)0014-4983
Economics and Econometrics

Other styles