How to format your references using the Explorations in Economic History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Explorations in Economic History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fiore, A.M., 2014. Atmospheric chemistry: No equatorial divide for a cleansing radical. Nature 513, 176–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karbaschi, M., Cooke, M.S., 2014. Novel method for the high-throughput processing of slides for the comet assay. Sci. Rep. 4, 7200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerstein, M., Lan, N., Jansen, R., 2002. Proteomics. Integrating interactomes. Science 295, 284–287.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, C., Hao, F., Zhao, X., Zhao, Q., Luo, S., Lin, H., 2014. Low temperature reduction of free-standing graphene oxide papers with metal iodides for ultrahigh bulk conductivity. Sci. Rep. 4, 3965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, D.F., Malone, S.W., 2008. Macrofinancial Risk Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Günther, O.P., 2008. RFID in Manufacturing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yuen, S.G., Yip, M.C., Vasilyev, N.V., Perrin, D.P., del Nido, P.J., Howe, R.D., 2009. Robotic Force Stabilization for Beating Heart Intracardiac Surgery, in: Yang, G.-Z., Hawkes, D., Rueckert, D., Noble, A., Taylor, C. (Eds.), Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2009: 12th International Conference, London, UK, September 20-24, 2009, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 26–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Explorations in Economic History.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. A Bizarre Foam Blob Is Taking Over A Street In California — Here’s What’s Causing It [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Intellectual Property: Agencies Progress in Implementing Recent Legislation, but Enhancements Could Improve Future Plans (No. GAO-11-39). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela, J., 2014. Medicare advantage’s population make-up and its impact on the future of Medicare financing (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Jets Cause a Spectacle, This Time on the Field. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fiore, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fiore, 2014; Karbaschi and Cooke, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karbaschi and Cooke, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleExplorations in Economic History
AbbreviationExplor. Econ. Hist.
ISSN (print)0014-4983
Economics and Econometrics

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