How to format your references using the Explorations in Economic History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Explorations in Economic History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yellen, G., 2002. The voltage-gated potassium channels and their relatives. Nature 419, 35–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappuoli, R., Covacci, A., 2003. Reverse vaccinology and genomics. Science 302, 602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asphaug, E., Agnor, C.B., Williams, Q., 2006. Hit-and-run planetary collisions. Nature 439, 155–160.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Heavens, A., Panter, B., Jimenez, R., Dunlop, J., 2004. The star-formation history of the Universe from the stellar populations of nearby galaxies. Nature 428, 625–627.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zeng, K., Lou, W., Li, M., 2011. Multihop Wireless Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Yao, L., 2006. Low-Power Low-Voltage Sigma-Delta Modulators in Nanometer CMOS, The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheah, L., Evans, C., Bandivadekar, A., Heywood, J., 2009. Factor of Two: Halving the Fuel Consumption of New U.S. Automobiles by 2035, in: Cannon, J.S., Sperling, D. (Eds.), Reducing Climate Impacts in the Transportation Sector. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 49–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Explorations in Economic History.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How Jaws Kicked Off Our 40-Year Love Affair With Sharks [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Transportation Infrastructure: The Nation’s Highway Bridges Remain at Risk From Earthquakes (No. RCED-92-59). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cole Jackson, M., 2015. National school reform: the benefits of civility and ethics instruction (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2016. Pressing for Win, Jets Push the Wrong Buttons. New York Times D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yellen, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Rappuoli and Covacci, 2003; Yellen, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rappuoli and Covacci, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Heavens et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleExplorations in Economic History
AbbreviationExplor. Econ. Hist.
ISSN (print)0014-4983
Economics and Econometrics

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