How to format your references using the Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinberg, D. H. (2005). Astronomy. Mapping the large-scale structure of the universe. Science 309, 564–565.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levine, B. L., and June, C. H. (2013). Perspective: assembly line immunotherapy. Nature 498, S17.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohman, D. J., Bickford, D., and Sodhi, N. S. (2007). Environment. The burning issue. Science 316, 376.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou, J., Long, S., Wang, Q., and Dinsmore, A. D. (2006). Measurement of forces inside a three-dimensional pile of frictionless droplets. Science 312, 1631–1633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maini, A. K., and Agrawal, V. (2006). Satellite Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Barati, B. (2015). In Silico Engineering of Disulphide Bonds to Produce Stable Cellulase. , ed. I. Sadegh Amiri Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Janse, M. J. (2010). “Activation of the Heart,” in Comprehensive Electrocardiology, eds. P. W. Macfarlane, A. van Oosterom, O. Pahlm, P. Kligfield, M. Janse, and J. Camm (London: Springer), 145–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Unbelievable Facts About Our Universe. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017). Inland Harbors: The Corps of Engineers Should Assess Existing Capabilities to Better Inform Dredging Decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warner, T. (2015). California Assembly Bill 2404 Fair Play in Community Sports Act compliance procedures manual.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2009). Big Breaks on Unpaid Parking Tickets, for a Limited Time Only. New York Times, LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weinberg, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Weinberg, 2005; Levine and June, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levine and June, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
AbbreviationFront. Synaptic Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1663-3563
ScopeCell Biology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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