How to format your references using the Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J. (2009). Physics. Fast electrons tie quantum knots. Science 323, 888–890.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yedid, G., and Bell, G. (2002). Macroevolution simulated with autonomously replicating computer programs. Nature 420, 810–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taniyasu, Y., Kasu, M., and Makimoto, T. (2006). An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres. Nature 441, 325–328.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Clayton, E., Doupé, D. P., Klein, A. M., Winton, D. J., Simons, B. D., and Jones, P. H. (2007). A single type of progenitor cell maintains normal epidermis. Nature 446, 185–189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, D. J. (2011). Bond Math. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Goldberg, D. J. ed. (2005). Laser Dermatology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rehman, H. U., and Gwaltney, S. R. (2014). “Structure and Energetics of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (T8,T10,T12-POSS) Cages with Atomic and Ionic Lithium Species,” in Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry III, eds. J. Leszczynski and M. K. Shukla (Boston, MA: Springer US), 151–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). One-Off Legal Sale Of Ivory Stockpiles Led To A Dramatic Increase In Elephant Poaching. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Use of Surplus Dairy Products in the National School Lunch Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corbets, J. B. (2017). Evaluating System Architecture Quality and Architecting Team Performance Using Information Quality Theory.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Jewish Groups Under Attack. New York Times, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Yedid and Bell, 2002; Zaanen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yedid and Bell, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Clayton et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
AbbreviationFront. Synaptic Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1663-3563
ScopeCell Biology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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