How to format your references using the Gut Pathogens citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gut Pathogens. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kaiser R. Flowers and fungi use scents to mimic each other. Science. 2006;311:806–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bayraktar OA, Doe CQ. Combinatorial temporal patterning in progenitors expands neural diversity. Nature. 2013;498:449–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jedema FJ, Filip AT, van Wees BJ. Electrical spin injection and accumulation at room temperature in an all-metal mesoscopic spin valve. Nature. 2001;410:345–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Vlasov YA, Bo XZ, Sturm JC, Norris DJ. On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals. Nature. 2001;414:289–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Maguire L, Smith E. 30 Great Myths about Shakespeare. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Bach V, Delle Site L, editors. Many-Electron Approaches in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics: A Multidisciplinary View. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gonzàlez-Alujas MT, Evangelista Masip A. Echocardiography in Infective Endocarditis Diagnosis. In: Habib G, editor. Infective Endocarditis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Imaging, Therapy, and Prevention. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 37–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gut Pathogens.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. New Funeral Service Dissolves Dead People And Dumps Remains Into Sewer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: DOT’s Implementation of Airline Regulatory Authority. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Jun. Report No.: RCED-89-93.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Guiltinan E. Characterizing well connectivity in fractured bedrock using periodic hydraulic tests [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Savodnik P. If They Build It, Will The Kardashians Come? New York Times. 2013 Feb 8;MM32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGut Pathogens
AbbreviationGut Pathog.
ISSN (online)1757-4749
Infectious Diseases

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