How to format your references using the Gut Pathogens citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gut Pathogens. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Powell K. Make your point. Nature. 2005;434:416–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Perez JE, Bashirullah AK. Bureaucracy strangles Latin American research. Nature. 2000;405:273.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Devine JA, Baker KD, Haedrich RL. Fisheries: deep-sea fishes qualify as endangered. Nature. 2006;439:29.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pereira L, Soares P, Triska P, Rito T, van der Waerden A, Li B, et al. Global human frequencies of predicted nuclear pathogenic variants and the role played by protein hydrophobicity in pathogenicity potential. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7155.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Samara T. ERP and Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. Sturgeon C, editor. Endocrine Neoplasia. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Koranyi A. Holomorphic and Harmonic Functions on Bounded Symmetric Domains. In: Vesentini E, editor. Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 125–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gut Pathogens.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Surgeons Removed Teeth From Infant’s Brain Tumor. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Personnel: More Accurate Estimate of Overdue Security Clearance Reinvestigations Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Sep. Report No.: T-NSIAD-00-246.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McCain AK. Influence of market setting and time of purchase on counts of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and coliform and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in beef, pork, and chicken in Vietnam [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barron J. Overlooked Influences in Trump’s Life: A Famous Minister and His Church. New York Times. 2016 Sep 6;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGut Pathogens
AbbreviationGut Pathog.
ISSN (online)1757-4749
Infectious Diseases

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