How to format your references using the Earth, Planets and Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth, Planets and Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight J (2001) Study says authors are averse to declaring conflicts of interest. Nature 411:3–4
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones JDG, Dangl JL (2006) The plant immune system. Nature 444:323–329
A journal article with 3 authors
Tiberti MM, Basili R, Vannoli P (2014) Ups and downs in western Crete (Hellenic subduction zone). Sci Rep 4:5677
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tobias JA, Bates JM, Hackett SJ, Seddon N (2008) Comment on “The latitudinal gradient in recent speciation and extinction rates of birds and mammals.” Science 319:901; author reply 901

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bahgat G (2011) Energy Security. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Battin-Leclerc F, Simmie JM, Blurock E (eds) (2013) Cleaner Combustion: Developing Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Petrilli S, Ponzio A (2015) Language as Primary Modeling and Natural Languages: A Biosemiotic Perspective. In: Velmezova E, Kull K, Cowley SJ (eds) Biosemiotic Perspectives on Language and Linguistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth, Planets and Space.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Big-Brained Female Guppies Outsmart Hungry Predators. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Backfish M (2013) Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J (2017) Maggot to Blowfly: Ready for Its Close-Up. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knight 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Knight 2001; Jones and Dangl 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Dangl 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Tobias et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth, Planets and Space
AbbreviationEarth Planets Space
ISSN (online)1880-5981
Space and Planetary Science

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