How to format your references using the Earth, Planets and Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth, Planets and Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gabuzda D (2014) Astrophysics: The MAD world of black holes. Nature 510:42–43
A journal article with 2 authors
Wandzioch E, Zaret KS (2009) Dynamic signaling network for the specification of embryonic pancreas and liver progenitors. Science 324:1707–1710
A journal article with 3 authors
Grund T, Waloszek C, Helbing D (2013) How natural selection can create both self- and other-regarding preferences, and networked minds. Sci Rep 3:1480
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Edmonds HN, Michael PJ, Baker ET, et al (2003) Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Nature 421:252–256

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheinfeld R (2009) Busting Loose from the Business Game. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dincer I, Hepbasli A, Midilli A, Karakoc TH (eds) (2010) Global Warming: Engineering Solutions. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Cortina S, Mayer N, Renault A, Barafort B (2014) Towards a Process Assessment Model for Management System Standards. In: Mitasiunas A, Rout T, O’Connor RV, Dorling A (eds) Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination: 14th International Conference, SPICE 2014, Vilnius, Lithuania, November 4-6, 2014, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 36–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth, Planets and Space.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) SpaceX Rocket Explosion Mystery Deepens With Sabotage Speculation. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Comments on Loan Guarantee Provisions of H.R. 13350, the 1977 Authorization Bill for the Energy Research and Development Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amezcua D (2016) Increasing academic success for foster youth: Educational workshops and resource guides: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Observing the Journey of a Lacrosse Pioneer, McPhee Style. New York Times B15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gabuzda 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Wandzioch and Zaret 2009; Gabuzda 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wandzioch and Zaret 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Edmonds et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth, Planets and Space
AbbreviationEarth Planets Space
ISSN (online)1880-5981
Space and Planetary Science

Other styles