How to format your references using the Earth, Planets and Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth, Planets and Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilmot CM (2007) Biochemistry. An ancient and intimate partnership. Science 316:379–380
A journal article with 2 authors
Carvalho AB, Clark AG (2005) Y chromosome of D. pseudoobscura is not homologous to the ancestral Drosophila Y. Science 307:108–110
A journal article with 3 authors
Katz SL, Syme DA, Shadwick RE (2001) High-speed swimming. Enhanced power in yellowfin tuna. Nature 410:770–771
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tian J, Chang C, Cao H, et al (2014) Quantum and classical magnetoresistance in ambipolar topological insulator transistors with gate-tunable bulk and surface conduction. Sci Rep 4:4859

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Canham J, Bennett J (2008) Mentorship in Community Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Casillas J, Martínez-López FJ, Corchado Rodríguez JM (eds) (2012) Management Intelligent Systems: First International Symposium. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chopra S, Shim S, Steffy DE (2015) A few strong knapsack facets. In: Defourny B, Terlaky T (eds) Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications: MOPTA, Bethlehem, PA, USA, August 2014 Selected Contributions. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 77–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth, Planets and Space.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Life Onboard the ISS May Be Revolutionized By 3D Printing. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Federally Funded Math and Science Materials. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman MJ (2010) Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2016) Rebels’ Plight Is Clear in Yemeni Capital. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilmot 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Carvalho and Clark 2005; Wilmot 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carvalho and Clark 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Tian et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth, Planets and Space
AbbreviationEarth Planets Space
ISSN (online)1880-5981
Space and Planetary Science

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