How to format your references using the Earth, Planets and Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth, Planets and Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitch T (2010) Journal club. A cognitive biologist foresees breakthroughs in understanding vocal learning. Nature 466:163
A journal article with 2 authors
Spradling AC, Zheng Y (2007) Developmental biology. The mother of all stem cells? Science 315:469–470
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang R-Y, Li G, Yu J-Q (2014) Conformation-induced remote meta-C-H activation of amines. Nature 507:215–220
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen J-Y, Bottjer DJ, Oliveri P, et al (2004) Small bilaterian fossils from 40 to 55 million years before the cambrian. Science 305:218–222

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scot L (2010) The Simplified Guide to Not-for-Profit Accounting, Formation, and Reporting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wang ZM (ed) (2008) One-Dimensional Nanostructures. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Miyazaki T, Ishikura K, Honda A, et al (2015) Increased N-Acetyltaurine in Serum and Urine After Endurance Exercise in Human. In: Marcinkiewicz J, Schaffer SW (eds) Taurine 9. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 53–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth, Planets and Space.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Binge Drinking Affects Your Immune System Immediately. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Weather Forecasting: Improvements Needed in Laboratory Software Development Processes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henderson MM (2013) Coming to Terms: Career Development Experiences of NCAA Division I Female Student-Athletes in Transition. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Feeney K (2009) Potpies You Can Pocket. New York Times NJ7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fitch 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Spradling and Zheng 2007; Fitch 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Spradling and Zheng 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth, Planets and Space
AbbreviationEarth Planets Space
ISSN (online)1880-5981
Space and Planetary Science

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