How to format your references using the Earth, Planets and Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth, Planets and Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victor P (2010) Questioning economic growth. Nature 468:370–371
A journal article with 2 authors
Kohno M, Koizumi Y (2000) Tokaimura accident. Neutron dose estimates from 5-yen coins. Nature 406:693
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy MJ, Pevear DR, Hill RJ (2002) Mineral surface control of organic carbon in black shale. Science 295:657–660
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Unnithan VV, Unc A, Joe V, Smith GB (2014) Short RNA indicator sequences are not completely degraded by autoclaving. Sci Rep 4:4070

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Angueira P, Romo JA (2012) Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Atkinson K (2012) Spherical Harmonics and Approximations on the Unit Sphere: An Introduction. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sachar R, Kapadia S (2007) Cerebrovascular Anatomy. In: Saw J, Exaire JE, Lee DS, Yadav JS (eds) Handbook Of Complex Percutaneous Carotid Intervention. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 65–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth, Planets and Space.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) The Black Death May Have Improved Health. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Problems Found With Government Acquisition and Use of Computers From November 1965 to December 1976. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darvish H (2015) Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Prochnik G (2009) City of Earthy Delights. New York Times WK10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Victor 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Kohno and Koizumi 2000; Victor 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kohno and Koizumi 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Unnithan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth, Planets and Space
AbbreviationEarth Planets Space
ISSN (online)1880-5981
Space and Planetary Science

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