How to format your references using the Earth, Planets and Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth, Planets and Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pachauri RK (2009) India pushes for common responsibility. Nature 461:1054
A journal article with 2 authors
Joseph SB, Swanstrom R (2014) HIV/AIDS. A fitness bottleneck in HIV-1 transmission. Science 345:136–137
A journal article with 3 authors
Cronin TW, Caldwell RL, Marshall J (2001) Sensory adaptation. Tunable colour vision in a mantis shrimp. Nature 411:547–548
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schramek D, Leibbrandt A, Sigl V, et al (2010) Osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL controls development of progestin-driven mammary cancer. Nature 468:98–102

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lavi MR (2016) The Impact of IFRS on Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Cooper K, Anwaruddin SM (eds) (2016) Student Voice: A Companion to Democracy and Its Discontents. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Riehle KJ, Fausto N (2014) Mechanisms of Liver Injury. In: Murray KF, Horslen S (eds) Diseases of the Liver in Children: Evaluation and Management. Springer, New York, NY, pp 67–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth, Planets and Space.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017) Cheerios’ Attempt To Save Bees Backfired Massively. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Budget Authority Rescission Proposals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dorrance AM (2008) The Role of the Partial Tandem Duplication of MLL (MLL PTD) in Leukemogenesis. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burns A, Goodnough A (2017) Democrats Focus On Bill’s Stance On Prior Illness. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pachauri 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Pachauri 2009; Joseph and Swanstrom 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Joseph and Swanstrom 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schramek et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth, Planets and Space
AbbreviationEarth Planets Space
ISSN (online)1880-5981
Space and Planetary Science

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