How to format your references using the Earth, Planets and Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth, Planets and Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elmegreen B (2014) Astrophysics: How tiny galaxies form stars. Nature 514:310–311
A journal article with 2 authors
Geschwind DH, Flint J (2015) Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease. Science 349:1489–1494
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson RJ, Zhou N, MacVicar BA (2006) Ischemia opens neuronal gap junction hemichannels. Science 312:924–927
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hoffman JE, Hudson EW, Lang KM, et al (2002) A four unit cell periodic pattern of quasi-particle states surrounding vortex cores in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. Science 295:466–469

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hampel FR, Ronchetti EM, Rousseeuw PJ, Stahel WA (2005) Robust Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gundelfinger ED, Seidenbecher CI, Schraven B (eds) (2006) Cell Communication in Nervous and Immune System. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
DeGennaro D (2010) History, Culture, Emergence Informing Learning Designs. In: Roth W-M (ed) Re/Structuring Science Education: ReUniting Sociological and Psychological Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 59–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth, Planets and Space.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Why One Glacier Isn’t Melting In a Warming World. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Information Technology: FDA Has Taken Steps to Address Challenges but Needs a Comprehensive Strategic Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boothe CS (2012) The effects of prototype medium on the user’s overall perception of usability and ability to detect usability flaws. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
O’connell ME (2013) The Questions Brennan Can’t Dodge. New York Times A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elmegreen 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Elmegreen 2014; Geschwind and Flint 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Geschwind and Flint 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hoffman et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth, Planets and Space
AbbreviationEarth Planets Space
ISSN (online)1880-5981
Space and Planetary Science

Other styles