How to format your references using the Granular Matter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Matter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batey, R.T.: Structural biology: Lariat lessons. Nature. 514, 173–174 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wikelski, M., Thom, C.: Marine iguanas shrink to survive El Niño. Nature. 403, 37–38 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Akiyama, K., Matsuzaki, K.-I., Hayashi, H.: Plant sesquiterpenes induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature. 435, 824–827 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blanford, J.I., Blanford, S., Crane, R.G., Mann, M.E., Paaijmans, K.P., Schreiber, K.V., Thomas, M.B.: Implications of temperature variation for malaria parasite development across Africa. Sci. Rep. 3, 1300 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy, T.: Mechanical and Electromagnetic Vibrations and Waves. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Madria, S., Hara, T. eds: Big Data Analytics and Knowledge Discovery: 17th International Conference, DaWaK 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 1-4, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Yeo, K.K., Laird, J.R.: Subclavian and Upper Extremity Interventions. In: Bhatt, D.L. (ed.) Peripheral and Cerebrovascular Intervention. pp. 99–114. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Matter.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Can A Lack Of Love Be Deadly?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Aviation: Bankruptcy and Pension Problems Are Symptoms of Underlying Structural Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gunathilaka, D.: Compliance with dietary restrictions among African American older adults with chronic kidney disease in a nursing home setting, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hoffman, C.: David Lynch Has a Great Idea for a Movie, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Matter
AbbreviationGranul. Matter
ISSN (print)1434-5021
ISSN (online)1434-7636
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles