How to format your references using the Granular Matter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Matter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, K.: Electronics: Back to analogue. Nature. 483, S34-6 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Makino, S., Suzuki, M.: Bacterial genomic reorganization upon DNA replication. Science. 292, 803 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lappe, M., Awater, H., Krekelberg, B.: Postsaccadic visual references generate presaccadic compression of space. Nature. 403, 892–895 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gadjourova, Z., Andreev, Y.G., Tunstall, D.P., Bruce, P.G.: Ionic conductivity in crystalline polymer electrolytes. Nature. 412, 520–523 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, A.: A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2008)
An edited book
Axelsson, S.: Understanding Intrusion Detection Through Visualization. Springer US, Boston, MA (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Walker, A., Denton, M.: Central Nervous System Infections. In: Adams, J.P., Bell, D., and McKinlay, J. (eds.) Neurocritical Care: A Guide to Practical Management. pp. 43–50. Springer, London (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Matter.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Exercise Gives You More Brain Cells, But Do These Push Old Memories Out Of Your Brain?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Air Safety: FAA’s Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grosso, T.: Exploring How Older Adults Who Qualify for the Association on Aging with Developmental Disabilities (AADD) Programs and Services Learn to Successfully Age in Place, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: Potpies You Can Pocket, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Matter
AbbreviationGranul. Matter
ISSN (print)1434-5021
ISSN (online)1434-7636
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles