How to format your references using the Granular Matter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Matter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Catling, D.C.: Comment on “A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere.” Science. 311, 38; author reply 38 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Macfarlane, A., Martin, G.: Beyond the ivory tower. A world of glass. Science. 305, 1407–1408 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chadderton, P., Margrie, T.W., Häusser, M.: Integration of quanta in cerebellar granule cells during sensory processing. Nature. 428, 856–860 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cash, H.L., Whitham, C.V., Behrendt, C.L., Hooper, L.V.: Symbiotic bacteria direct expression of an intestinal bactericidal lectin. Science. 313, 1126–1130 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vanclef, J.: The Wealth Code 2.0. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Layton, W.J.: Approximate Deconvolution Models of Turbulence: Analysis, Phenomenology and Numerical Analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Helm, V., Willmann, J., Gramazio, F., Kohler, M.: In-Situ Robotic Fabrication: Advanced Digital Manufacturing Beyond the Laboratory. In: Röhrbein, F., Veiga, G., and Natale, C. (eds.) Gearing up and accelerating cross‐fertilization between academic and industrial robotics research in Europe: Technology transfer experiments from the ECHORD project. pp. 63–83. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Matter.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Ancient Two-Faced Fish Suggests Our Ancestor Wasn’t Shark-Like,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: Executive office for U.S. Attorneys Needs to Institutionalize Key IT Management Disciplines. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2003)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, M.W.: Popular Culture and War in the Vietnam Era, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Matter
AbbreviationGranul. Matter
ISSN (print)1434-5021
ISSN (online)1434-7636
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles