How to format your references using the Granular Matter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Matter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N.: Functional neuroscience: changing the colour of MRI. Nature. 458, 926 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiel, S., Little, C.T.S.: Cold-seep mollusks are older than the general marine mollusk fauna. Science. 313, 1429–1431 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Maret, S., Bergin, E.A., Lada, C.J.: A low fraction of nitrogen in molecular form in a dark cloud. Nature. 442, 425–427 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mitchell, J.I., Zhou, N., Nam, W., Traverso, L.M., Xu, X.: Sub-diffraction laser synthesis of silicon nanowires. Sci. Rep. 4, 3908 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padgett, S.: Profiling the Fraudster. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Stevenson, R.J., Pan, Y., Kociolek, J.P., Kingston, J.C. eds: Advances in Algal Biology: A Commemoration of the Work of Rex Lowe. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Manna, M., Oro, E., Ruffolo, M., Alviano, M., Leone, N.: The H $\imath$ L ε X System for Semantic Information Extraction. In: Hameurlain, A., Küng, J., and Wagner, R. (eds.) Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems V. pp. 91–125. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Matter.

Blog post
Fang, J.: What Yellowstone’s Thermal Pools Looked Like Before Decades of Tourism,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Aviation Administration: Efforts to Hire, Staff, and Train Air Traffic Controllers Are Generally on Track, but Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2008)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wahl, S.E.: Registered nurse preceptorship orientation: A study of the relationship between burnout rates of new graduates and number of preceptors worked with in the clinical orientation phase, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: Buses Parked at Ground Zero: Sensible or Sacrilege?, (2003)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Matter
AbbreviationGranul. Matter
ISSN (print)1434-5021
ISSN (online)1434-7636
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles