How to format your references using the Granular Matter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Matter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duncan, M.J.: Planetary science: Preventing stars from eating their young. Nature. 520, 40–41 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hatzor, A., Weiss, P.: Molecular rulers for scaling down nanostructures. Science. 291, 1019–1020 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Han, C., Ding, H., Lv, F.: Demonstration of a refractometric sensor based on an optical micro-fiber three-beam interferometer. Sci. Rep. 4, 7504 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhu, M., Yu, X., Wang, W., Zhao, W., Jia, L.: A primitive fish provides key characters bearing on deep osteichthyan phylogeny. Nature. 441, 77–80 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Golding, P.: Next Generation Wireless Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2005)
An edited book
Gopalakrishnakone, P., Balali-Mood, M., Llewellyn, L., Singh, B.R. eds: Biological Toxins and Bioterrorism. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Klisnick, A., Le Marec, A., Meng, L., Larroche, O., Guilbaud, O., Kozlova, M., Nejdl, J., Calisti, A.: Spectral Properties of Collisional Xuv Lasers for the Amplification of Femtosecond Pulses. In: Rocca, J., Menoni, C., and Marconi, M. (eds.) X-Ray Lasers 2014: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers. pp. 45–52. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Matter.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Blue-Footed Boobies Camouflage Eggs With Dirt, And It Works,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Longer Combination Trucks: Potential Infrastructure Impacts, Productivity Benefits, and Safety Concerns. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, K.C.: Coping strategies for adolescents whose parents have cancer: A curriculum, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
La Gorce, T.: Fire Up the Pit: My Brisket Can Burn Yours, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Matter
AbbreviationGranul. Matter
ISSN (print)1434-5021
ISSN (online)1434-7636
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles