How to format your references using the Granular Matter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Matter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horton, B.: Bioengineering programmes rise to meet the challenge of a young science. Nature. 403, 463–465 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Mota, B., Herculano-Houzel, S.: BRAIN STRUCTURE. Cortical folding scales universally with surface area and thickness, not number of neurons. Science. 349, 74–77 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, L., Dudin, Y.O., Kuzmich, A.: Entanglement between light and an optical atomic excitation. Nature. 498, 466–469 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Holleitner, A.W., Blick, R.H., Huttel, A.K., Eberl, K., Kotthaus, J.P.: Probing and controlling the bonds of an artificial molecule. Science. 297, 70–72 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, P., Davies, M.: Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2009)
An edited book
Ferrer, N.F., Alfonso, J.M. eds: Content Management for E-Learning. Springer, New York, NY (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Cho, Y.J., Park, C., Rassias, T.M., Saadati, R.: Stability of Functional Inequalities in Banach Algebras. In: Park, C., Rassias, T.M., and Saadati, R. (eds.) Stability of Functional Equations in Banach Algebras. pp. 165–199. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Matter.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: New Lock-And-Key Technology Promises Rapid Cancer Testing for Developing World,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Research: Guidance for Equipment Acquired Under Grants and Cooperative Agreements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, S.L.: Ninth grade transition: Best practices for a successful transition to high school, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S.: A Handmade Sea of Sparkling Glass, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Matter
AbbreviationGranul. Matter
ISSN (print)1434-5021
ISSN (online)1434-7636
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles