How to format your references using the GSA Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GSA Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fujita, T., 2006, Virology. Sensing viral RNA amid your own: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 314, p. 935–936.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armitage, A.E., and Drakesmith, H., 2014, Genetics. The battle for iron: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 346, p. 1299–1300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tewksbury, J.J., Huey, R.B., and Deutsch, C.A., 2008, Ecology. Putting the heat on tropical animals: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 320, p. 1296–1297.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Scheid, J.F. et al., 2011, Sequence and structural convergence of broad and potent HIV antibodies that mimic CD4 binding: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 333, p. 1633–1637.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Billington, D.P., 2013, Der Turm und die Brücke: D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Stroo, H.F., and Ward, C.H. (Eds.), 2010, In Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes: New York, NY, Springer, SERDP/ESTCP Environmental Remediation Technology, XVI, 786 p. 176 illus., 114 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kurtenbach, S., Mannheim, T., Hüsing, M., and Corves, B., 2014, Content and Realization of Education in Mechanism Theory at RWTH Aachen University, in García-Prada, J.C. and Castejón, C. eds., New Trends in Educational Activity in the Field of Mechanism and Machine Theory, Cham, Springer International Publishing, Mechanisms and Machine Science, p. 39–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GSA Today.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016, Japanese Company Wants To Create Artificial Meteors For The 2020 Tokyo Olympics: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013, School Lunch: Modifications Needed to Some of the New Nutrition Standards: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-13-708T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lastica, J.R., 2012, Why Do They Stay? A Phenomenological Study of Secondary Science Teacher Experiences [Doctoral dissertation]: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2017, Sibelius and His Slowly Imparted Secrets Revealed: New York Times, p. C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fujita, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Fujita, 2006; Armitage and Drakesmith, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armitage and Drakesmith, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Scheid et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleGSA Today
AbbreviationGSA Today
ISSN (print)1052-5173

Other styles