How to format your references using the GSA Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GSA Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt, S., 2011, Food: The omnivore’s labyrinth: Nature, v. 471, p. S22-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moran, T.G., and Davila, J.M., 2004, Three-dimensional polarimetric imaging of coronal mass ejections: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 305, p. 66–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson, A.R., Libby, S.J., and Fang, F.C., 2008, A nitric oxide-inducible lactate dehydrogenase enables Staphylococcus aureus to resist innate immunity: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 319, p. 1672–1676.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pors, A., Albrektsen, O., Radko, I.P., and Bozhevolnyi, S.I., 2013, Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light: Scientific reports, v. 3, p. 2155.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tolin, D.F., Worden, B.L., Wootton, B.M., and Gilliam, C.M., 2017, CBT for Hoarding Disorder: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kamihigashi, T., and Zhao, L. (Eds.), 2009, International Trade and Economic Dynamics: Essays in Memory of Koji Shimomura: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, XV, 532 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Castillo-Ramírez, S., and Feil, E.J., 2013, Covering All the Bases: The Promise of Genome-Wide Sequence Data for Large Population Samples of Bacteria, in Trueba, G. and Montúfar, C. eds., Evolution from the Galapagos: Two Centuries after Darwin, New York, NY, Springer, Social and Ecological Interactions in the Galapagos Islands, p. 41–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GSA Today.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016, A Dwarf Planet Beyond Neptune Is Bigger Than We Thought: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978, Federal Regulatory Policies: U.S. Government Printing Office PAD-78-68.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison, C., 2009, Who am I? Identity formation of children in foster care: A curriculum development [Doctoral dissertation]: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2013, Forging Path to Starting Line For Younger Disabled Athletes: New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Moran and Davila, 2004; DeWeerdt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moran and Davila, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Pors et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGSA Today
AbbreviationGSA Today
ISSN (print)1052-5173

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