How to format your references using the GSA Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GSA Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N., 2012, Come into the light: Nature, v. 483, p. S38-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Broza, M., and Halpern, M., 2001, Pathogen reservoirs. Chironomid egg masses and Vibrio cholerae: Nature, v. 412, p. 40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prieto, M.A., Brunetti, G., and Mack, K.-H., 2002, Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 298, p. 193–195.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pascal, J.M., O’Brien, P.J., Tomkinson, A.E., and Ellenberger, T., 2004, Human DNA ligase I completely encircles and partially unwinds nicked DNA: Nature, v. 432, p. 473–478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2014, Guidelines for Determining the Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sauvaud, J.-A., and Němeček, Z. (Eds.), 2005, Multiscale Processes in the Earth’s Magnetosphere: From Interball to Cluster: Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, v. 178, XIV, 328 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Williams, R.J., III, and Brophy, R.H., 2007, Decision Making in Cartilage Repair Procedures, in Williams, R.J. ed., Cartilage Repair Strategies, Totowa, NJ, Humana Press, p. 37–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GSA Today.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, Why Do People Feel ‘A Rose By Any Other Name’ Wouldn’t Fit As Well? IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981, Request for Information Concerning Space Transportation System: U.S. Government Printing Office B-202664.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cayo, P., 2017, A Shifting Bottleneck Procedure with Multiple Objectives in a Complex Manufacturing Environment [Doctoral dissertation]: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., and Cardwell, D., 2017, Trump Advisers Wage Tug of War On Climate Deal: New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Broza and Halpern, 2001; Savage, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Broza and Halpern, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pascal et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGSA Today
AbbreviationGSA Today
ISSN (print)1052-5173

Other styles