How to format your references using the Chemical Engineering Science: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Engineering Science: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nordlander, P., 2014. Applied physics. Molecular tuning of quantum plasmon resonances. Science 343, 1444–1445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Owen, R., Jobling, S., 2012. Environmental science: The hidden costs of flexible fertility. Nature 485, 441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Caraveo-Frescas, J.A., Khan, M.A., Alshareef, H.N., 2014. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility. Sci. Rep. 4, 5243.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krol, M.C., Lelieveld, J., Oram, D.E., Sturrock, G.A., Penkett, S.A., Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M., Gros, V., Williams, J., Scheeren, H.A., 2003. Continuing emissions of methyl chloroform from Europe. Nature 421, 131–135.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Exposito, E., 2012. Advanced Transport Protocols. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Liu, K.-C., Racherla, U.S. (Eds.), 2016. Innovation and IPRs in China and India: Myths, Realities and Opportunities, China-EU Law Series. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Butler, M., Maamria, I., 2013. Practical Theory Extension in Event-B, in: Liu, Z., Woodcock, J., Zhu, H. (Eds.), Theories of Programming and Formal Methods: Essays Dedicated to Jifeng He on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 67–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Engineering Science: X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Extremely Rare Mineral Found In 450 Million Year Old Meteorite Impact Crater [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Progress and Challenges in Planning and Implementing the Transformation of the National Airspace System (No. GAO-07-649T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olch, R., 2010. Low cost/no cost quality of life programs in non-profit theatre (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. An Attack’s Fresh Resonance. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nordlander, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nordlander, 2014; Owen and Jobling, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Owen and Jobling, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Krol et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Engineering Science: X
ISSN (print)2590-1400

Other styles