How to format your references using the Chemical Engineering Science: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Engineering Science: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padian, K., 2008. Darwin’s enduring legacy. Nature 451, 632–634.
A journal article with 2 authors
Riordan, O., Warnke, L., 2011. Explosive percolation is continuous. Science 333, 322–324.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, B., Ooi, T.L., He, Z.J., 2004. Perceiving distance accurately by a directional process of integrating ground information. Nature 428, 73–77.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eustis, S.N., Radisic, D., Bowen, K.H., Bachorz, R.A., Haranczyk, M., Schenter, G.K., Gutowski, M., 2008. Electron-driven acid-base chemistry: proton transfer from hydrogen chloride to ammonia. Science 319, 936–939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sizer, A., Balachandar, C., Biswas, N., Foon, R., Griffiths, A., Hodgett, S., Sahu, B., Underwood, M., 2016. Part 2 MRCOG: Single Best Answer Questions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Glaβmeier, K.-H., 2009. Geomagnetic Field Variations, Advances in Geophysical and Environmental Mechanics and Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Henne, B., Kater, C., Smith, M., 2014. On Usable Location Privacy for Android with Crowd-Recommendations, in: Holz, T., Ioannidis, S. (Eds.), Trust and Trustworthy Computing: 7th International Conference, TRUST 2014, Heraklion, Crete, June 30 – July 2, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 74–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Engineering Science: X.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. A Long-Lost Dark Age Kingdom Has Been Rediscovered In Scotland [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Space Station: Cost Control Problems (No. T-NSIAD-98-54). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simon, P.R., 2013. Gender grouping and its initial effect on a Title I upper elementary school during the pilot year of implementation (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J., 2017. ‘Weird Isn’t In Right Now.’ New York Times MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Padian, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Padian, 2008; Riordan and Warnke, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Riordan and Warnke, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Eustis et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Engineering Science: X
ISSN (print)2590-1400

Other styles