How to format your references using the Chemical Engineering Science: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Engineering Science: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rodrigues, A.S.L., 2006. Ecology. Are global conservation efforts successful? Science 313, 1051–1052.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradshaw, G.A., Finlay, B.L., 2005. Natural symmetry. Nature 435, 149.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raty, J.-Y., Schwegler, E., Bonev, S.A., 2007. Electronic and structural transitions in dense liquid sodium. Nature 449, 448–451.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dejoie, C., Sciau, P., Li, W., Noé, L., Mehta, A., Chen, K., Luo, H., Kunz, M., Tamura, N., Liu, Z., 2014. Learning from the past: rare ε-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares. Sci. Rep. 4, 4941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borchard-Tuch, C., Groß, M., 2005. Was Biotronik alles kann. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Scheffers, A.M., 2012. The Coastlines of the World with Google Earth: Understanding our Environment, Coastal Research Library. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Bruneau, V., Sambou, D., 2016. Spectral Clusters for Magnetic Exterior Problems, in: Mantoiu, M., Raikov, G., Tiedra de Aldecoa, R. (Eds.), Spectral Theory and Mathematical Physics, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Engineering Science: X.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Alcohol Really Does Treat Depression, Study Finds [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Need To Improve Administration of Fees and Charges of Regulatory Agencies (No. B-145252). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steers, A.V., 2010. Releasing from the inside out: The development of the role of Helene in “Festen” (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Looking for a Favorite, and Falling Short. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rodrigues, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bradshaw and Finlay, 2005; Rodrigues, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bradshaw and Finlay, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Dejoie et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Engineering Science: X
ISSN (print)2590-1400

Other styles