How to format your references using the Cryptography and Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryptography and Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stevenson, D.J.: A planetary perspective on the deep Earth. Nature. 451, 261–265 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Matear, R.J., McNeil, B.I.: Comment on “Preindustrial to modern interdecadal variability in coral reef pH.” Science. 314, 595 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Beekman, M., Calis, J.N., Boot, W.J.: Parasitic honeybees get royal treatment. Nature. 404, 723 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Snoek, L.B., Sterken, M.G., Volkers, R.J.M., Klatter, M., Bosman, K.J., Bevers, R.P.J., Riksen, J.A.G., Smant, G., Cossins, A.R., Kammenga, J.E.: A rapid and massive gene expression shift marking adolescent transition in C. elegans. Sci. Rep. 4, 3912 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, B.R.: The Law of Tax-Exempt Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Hippe, P.: Design of Observer-based Compensators: From the Time to the Frequency Domain. Springer, London (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Gorlewski, J.A., Gorlewski, D.A.: Standard #3. In: Gorlewski, J.A. and Gorlewski, D.A. (eds.) Making it Real: Case Stories for Secondary Teachers. pp. 39–49. SensePublishers, Rotterdam (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryptography and Communications.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Scientists Break Gene-Editing Record To Create Animal Organs For Human Transplantation,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Remote Radar for Yakima. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao, S.: An 8-PSK super regenerative receiver: Design and simulation, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J.: Ordinary People, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryptography and Communications
AbbreviationCryptogr. Commun.
ISSN (print)1936-2447
ISSN (online)1936-2455
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Networks and Communications
Applied Mathematics

Other styles