How to format your references using the Cryptography and Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryptography and Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin, J.: Aging research: is long life in the blood? Science. 302, 373–375 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Guydosh, N.R., Block, S.M.: Direct observation of the binding state of the kinesin head to the microtubule. Nature. 461, 125–128 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Miyazawa, A., Fujiyoshi, Y., Unwin, N.: Structure and gating mechanism of the acetylcholine receptor pore. Nature. 423, 949–955 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Showalter, M.R., Cheng, A.F., Weaver, H.A., Stern, S.A., Spencer, J.R., Throop, H.B., Birath, E.M., Rose, D., Moore, J.M.: Clump detections and limits on moons in Jupiter’s ring system. Science. 318, 232–234 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Reedy, M.A.: Project Management in the Oil and Gas Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Roeper, T., Speas, M. eds: Recursion: Complexity in Cognition. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Quirk, T.J., Quirk, M.H., Horton, H.F.: Two-Group t-Test of the Difference of the Means for Independent Groups. In: Quirk, M.H. and Horton, H.F. (eds.) Excel 2010 for Environmental Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems. pp. 81–109. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryptography and Communications.

Blog post
Fang, J.: New Pterosaur Flew Right Out of Avatar,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications and Information Technology: Federal Programs That Can Be Used to Fund Technology for Schools and Libraries. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, Y.: Studies on Error Control of 3-D Zerotree Wavelet Video Streaming, (2005)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S.: America’s Tea Culture Blossoms, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryptography and Communications
AbbreviationCryptogr. Commun.
ISSN (print)1936-2447
ISSN (online)1936-2455
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Networks and Communications
Applied Mathematics

Other styles