How to format your references using the Cryptography and Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryptography and Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lindenberger, U.: Human cognitive aging: corriger la fortune? Science. 346, 572–578 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ticozzi, F., Viola, L.: Quantum resources for purification and cooling: fundamental limits and opportunities. Sci. Rep. 4, 5192 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandrappa, G.T., Steunou, N., Livage, J.: Materials chemistry: macroporous crystalline vanadium oxide foam. Nature. 416, 702 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Su, D., Xie, X., Munroe, P., Dou, S., Wang, G.: Mesoporous hexagonal Co3O4 for high performance lithium ion batteries. Sci. Rep. 4, 6519 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hackshaw, A.: How to Write a Grant Application. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2010)
An edited book
Capano, G.: Changing Governance in Universities: Italian Higher Education in Comparative Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Lefere, P., Gryspeerdt, S.: The Alternative: Faecal Tagging. In: Lefere, P. and Gryspeerdt, S. (eds.) Virtual Colonoscopy: A Practical Guide. pp. 35–49. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryptography and Communications.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: New Horizons Is Now Halfway Between Pluto And Its Next Target In The Outer Solar System,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Exempting FAA from Procurement and Personnel Rules. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sullivan, T.J.: Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hartman, S.: Brooklyn Boxer Rises, but Her Feet Stay on the Ground, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryptography and Communications
AbbreviationCryptogr. Commun.
ISSN (print)1936-2447
ISSN (online)1936-2455
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Networks and Communications
Applied Mathematics

Other styles