How to format your references using the Future Generation Computer Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Generation Computer Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Fields, Molecular biology. Site-seeing by sequencing, Science. 316 (2007) 1441–1442.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.D. O’Neil, D.P. Gillikin, Do freshwater mussel shells record road-salt pollution?, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y.-Y. Ahn, J.P. Bagrow, S. Lehmann, Link communities reveal multiscale complexity in networks, Nature. 466 (2010) 761–764.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Sakaguchi, H. Matsumura, H. Gong, A.M. Abouelwafa, Direct visualization of the formation of single-molecule conjugated copolymers, Science. 310 (2005) 1002–1006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Balan, M. Neagu, Jet Single-Time Lagrange Geometry and Its Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
M. Kappler, A. Sachs, eds., Business Cycle Synchronisation and Economic Integration: New Evidence from the EU, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M.C. Ibarra, O. Castillo, J. Soria, Designing Systematic Stable Fuzzy Logic Controllers by Fuzzy Lyapunov Synthesis, in: O. Castillo, P. Melin, J. Kacprzyk (Eds.), Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Generation Computer Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New human body part discovered, IFLScience. (2013).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Transit Administration: Bus Rapid Transit Offers Communities a Flexible Mass Transit Option, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Rollo, Effect of the Stoplight Diet and mode of intervention on triglyceride production in a veteran population, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Bankruptcy In California Is Not Seen As a Trend, New York Times. (2012) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Generation Computer Systems
AbbreviationFuture Gener. Comput. Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-739X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture

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