How to format your references using the Future Generation Computer Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Generation Computer Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Bonesteel, Composite fermions pair up, Nature. 406 (2000) 840–841.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Navarro, K. Gull, A pol I transcriptional body associated with VSG mono-allelic expression in Trypanosoma brucei, Nature. 414 (2001) 759–763.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.B. Nielsen, R. Stephenson, E. Thomsen, Dynamics of Mid-Palaeocene North Atlantic rifting linked with European intra-plate deformations, Nature. 450 (2007) 1071–1074.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Munshi, T. Agalioti, S. Lomvardas, M. Merika, G. Chen, D. Thanos, Coordination of a transcriptional switch by HMGI(Y) acetylation, Science. 293 (2001) 1133–1136.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.O. Willis, Business Basics for Dentists, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK, 2013.
An edited book
J. Teramoto Pedrotti, L.M. Edwards, eds., Perspectives on the Intersection of Multiculturalism and Positive Psychology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T.D. Dayspring, Apoproteins and Cell Surface Receptors Regulating Lipoprotein Metabolism in the Setting of Type 2 Diabetes, in: A.J. Jenkins, P.P. Toth, T.J. Lyons (Eds.), Lipoproteins in Diabetes Mellitus, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 55–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Generation Computer Systems.

Blog post
J. Davis, Ebola Outbreak Has Been Confirmed In The Democratic Republic Of Congo, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The National Direct Student Loan Program Requires More Attention by the Office of Education and Participating Institutions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Tran, A psychoeducational program on hoarding within the Vietnamese community: Grant writing proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, Sex Doll, New York Times. (2017) C14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Generation Computer Systems
AbbreviationFuture Gener. Comput. Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-739X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture

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