How to format your references using the Future Generation Computer Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Generation Computer Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Bourne, ECOLOGY: Louisiana’s Vanishing Wetlands: Going, Going ., Science. 289 (2000) 1860–1863.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Losick, C. Desplan, Stochasticity and cell fate, Science. 320 (2008) 65–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.N. Munday, F. Capasso, V.A. Parsegian, Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces, Nature. 457 (2009) 170–173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Xiu, N.L. Puskar, J.A.P. Shanata, H.A. Lester, D.A. Dougherty, Nicotine binding to brain receptors requires a strong cation-pi interaction, Nature. 458 (2009) 534–537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Molimard, Experimental Mechanics of Solids and Structures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
W. Leal Filho, R. Kotter, eds., E-Mobility in Europe: Trends and Good Practice, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Johansson, P. Donner, Strict Ocean Governance and Commercial Implications of Arctic Navigation, in: P. Donner (Ed.), The Shipping Industry, Ocean Governance and Environmental Law in the Paradigm Shift: In Search of a Pragmatic Balance for the Arctic, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 67–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Generation Computer Systems.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, A Company Has Launched A Rocket From A Balloon For The First Time, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 21st Century Challenges: Reexamining the Base of the Federal Government, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.H. Gustus, E-Mentoring an Educator in a State School for the Deaf: An Action Research Study, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Ember, M.M. Grynbaum, Media’s Role in, and After, a Leaker’s Admission, New York Times. (2017) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Generation Computer Systems
AbbreviationFuture Gener. Comput. Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-739X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture

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