How to format your references using the Future Generation Computer Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Generation Computer Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.H. Freeman, Earth science: controls on isotopic gradients in rain, Nature. 516 (2014) 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Mogilner, G. Oster, Cell biology. Shrinking gels pull cells, Science. 302 (2003) 1340–1341.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.F. Bietenholz, N. Bartel, M.P. Rupen, Discovery of a compact radio component in the center of supernova 1986J, Science. 304 (2004) 1947–1949.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Dou, J.G. Park, S. Rana, B.J. Madden, H. Jiang, Y.-P. Pang, Novel selective and irreversible mosquito acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1068.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.G. Moloney, How to Solve Organic Reaction Mechanisms, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
C. Mauffrey, D.J. Hak, eds., Passport for the Orthopedic Boards and FRCS Examination, Springer, Paris, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
W.A. Hunt, E. Reeber, Formalization of the DE2 Language, in: D. Borrione, W. Paul (Eds.), Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods: 13th IFIP WG 10.5 Advanced Research Working Conference, CHARME 2005, Saarbrücken, Germany, October 3-6, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 20–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Generation Computer Systems.

Blog post
T. Hale, Irish Beach Reappears Within A Few Days After Disappearing 33 Years Ago, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Environmental Protection Agency: Difficulties in Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.S. Deshpande, Efficient idempotent methods for optimal control, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D.A. Kelly, 36 Hours | Portsmouth, N.H, New York Times. (2004) F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Generation Computer Systems
AbbreviationFuture Gener. Comput. Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-739X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture

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