How to format your references using the Future Generation Computer Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Generation Computer Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.D. Sachs, A new global effort to control malaria, Science. 298 (2002) 122–124.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.R. Ives, B.J. Cardinale, Food-web interactions govern the resistance of communities after non-random extinctions, Nature. 429 (2004) 174–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Bai, Q. Xu, Y. Qin, Vibration driven vehicle inspired from grass spike, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1851.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Li, Y. Liu, W. Xia, D. Lei, J.J. Voorhees, G.J. Fisher, Age-dependent alterations of decorin glycosaminoglycans in human skin, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2422.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Taylor, Handbook of Retinal Screening in Diabetes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
R.-E. Precup, S. Kovács, S. Preitl, E.M. Petriu, eds., Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology: Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M.A. Behr, Evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in: M. Divangahi (Ed.), The New Paradigm of Immunity to Tuberculosis, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 81–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Generation Computer Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Deep Calls Or Big Balls? Howler Monkeys Are Either All Mouth, Or All Trousers, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, A-10 Close Air Support Aircraft, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.-M. Lin, Transformation in Chinese Theatre Works’ the Legend of White Snake, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, France Loses to the U.S., With Typical Elegance, New York Times. (2011) B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Generation Computer Systems
AbbreviationFuture Gener. Comput. Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-739X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture

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