How to format your references using the Global Heart citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Heart. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padyukov L. Journal club. A human geneticist explores genetic diversity in Asia. Nature 2010;464:653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bodner S, Paine C. When peer review fails. Nature 2000;407:129–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shankar N, Baghdayan AS, Gilmore MS. Modulation of virulence within a pathogenicity island in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Nature 2002;417:746–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sañudo-Wilhelmy SA, Tovar-Sanchez A, Fu F-X, Capone DG, Carpenter EJ, Hutchins DA. The impact of surface-adsorbed phosphorus on phytoplankton Redfield stoichiometry. Nature 2004;432:897–901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akers RM. Lactation and the Mammary Gland. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company; 2016.
An edited book
Grass D. Optimal Control of Nonlinear Processes: With Applications in Drugs, Corruption, and Terror. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith D, Friesen J. Interacting with Device Hardware and Media. In: Friesen J, editor. Android Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011, p. 201–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Heart.

Blog post
Luntz S. Medical Marijuana Shows Promise Against Autoimmune Diseases. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Distance Learning: Opportunities Exist for DOD to Capitalize on Services’ Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lavin EE. Discourse in monolingual and bilingual non-trial hearings. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Larkin E. Trust and Trauma. New York Times 2017:BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Heart
AbbreviationGlob. Heart
ISSN (print)2211-8160
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Community and Home Care

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