How to format your references using the Annals of Saudi Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Saudi Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore PD. Conservation biology. Seeds of doubt. Nature. 2000 Oct 12;407(6805):683, 685.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bers DM, Harris SP. Translational medicine: to the rescue of the failing heart. Nature. 2011 May 5;473(7345):36–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu G, Golding GB, Dean AM. The selective cause of an ancient adaptation. Science. 2005 Feb 25;307(5713):1279–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
O’Connor JM, Stoffers P, Wijbrans JR, Shannon PM, Morrissey T. Evidence from episodic seamount volcanism for pulsing of the Iceland plume in the past 70 Myr. Nature. 2000;408(6815):954–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Acharya VV, Cooley TF, Richardson M, Walter I. Regulating Wall Street. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Simões A, Diogo MP, Gavroglu K, editors. Sciences in the Universities of Europe, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Academic Landscapes. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. X, 393 p. 18 illus., 10 illus. in color. (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science; vol. 309).
A chapter in an edited book
Bora DK, Braun A, Gajda-Schrantz K. Solar Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting with Bioconjugate and Bio-Hybrid Electrodes. In: Rozhkova EA, Ariga K, editors. From Molecules to Materials: Pathways to Artificial Photosynthesis. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 125–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Saudi Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Study Suggests Conservatives Are More Susceptible To Bullsh*t. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer-Based Patient Records: Improved Planning and Project Management Are Critical to Achieving Two-Way VA-DOD Health Data Exchange. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 May. Report No.: GAO-04-811T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pantallion AS. A parallel comparison of views regarding student preparation for introductory college chemistry [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. roberts court may be defined in second term. New York Times. 2006 Oct 2;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Saudi Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Saudi Med.
ISSN (print)0256-4947
ISSN (online)0975-4466
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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