How to format your references using the Annals of Saudi Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Saudi Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benford G. Where might it lead? Nature. 2001 Nov 22;414(6862):399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greene CH, Pershing AJ. Oceans. Climate drives sea change. Science. 2007 Feb 23;315(5815):1084–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlin S, Bergman A, Gentles AJ. Genomics. Annotation of the Drosophila genome. Nature. 2001 May 17;411(6835):259–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pal-Bhadra M, Leibovitch BA, Gandhi SG, Chikka MR, Rao M, Bhadra U, et al. Heterochromatic silencing and HP1 localization in Drosophila are dependent on the RNAi machinery. Science. 2004 Jan 30;303(5658):669–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maji P, Pal SK. Rough-Fuzzy Pattern Recognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Merkus HG, Meesters GMH, editors. Production, Handling and Characterization of Particulate Materials. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XVIII, 548 p. 279 illus., 120 illus. in color. (Particle Technology Series; vol. 25).
A chapter in an edited book
Corr P, Revelle W, Wilt J, Rosenthal A. General Models of Individual Differences in Cognition: The Commentaries. In: Gruszka A, Matthews G, Szymura B, editors. Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition: Attention, Memory, and Executive Control. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 63–70. (The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Saudi Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. NASA Will Soon Let Private Companies Attach Modules To The ISS. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automated Patent System: Information on PTO’s Program to Automate Patent Information and Processes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 May. Report No.: T-IMTEC-92-20.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez JM. Navy Supply Corps officer’s perspective on effective leadership [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Edmonton’s Abuzz? Think Prodigy. New York Times. 2016 Oct 27;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Saudi Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Saudi Med.
ISSN (print)0256-4947
ISSN (online)0975-4466
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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