How to format your references using the Annals of Saudi Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Saudi Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldhous P. Protests force primate farm to close. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):215.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tani K, Stoltz BM. Synthesis and structural analysis of 2-quinuclidonium tetrafluoroborate. Nature. 2006 Jun 8;441(7094):731–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duncan K, Sadanand A, Davachi L. Memory’s penumbra: episodic memory decisions induce lingering mnemonic biases. Science. 2012 Jul 27;337(6093):485–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Naruse M, Kim SJ, Aono M, Hori H, Ohtsu M. Chaotic oscillation and random-number generation based on nanoscale optical-energy transfer. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 12;4:6039.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chowdhury D, Stauffer D. Principles of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Gurevich Y, Meyer B, editors. Tests and Proofs: First International Conference, TAP 2007, Zurich, Switzerland, February 12-13, 2007. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. IX, 217 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 4454).
A chapter in an edited book
Mikami N. Public Participation in Decision-Making on Energy Policy: The Case of the “National Discussion” After the Fukushima Accident. In: Fujigaki Y, editor. Lessons From Fukushima: Japanese Case Studies on Science, Technology and Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 87–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Saudi Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bilateral gynandromorphs - animals that are quite literally, half male and half female [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. License Suspensions for Nondriving Offenses: Practices in Four States That May Ease the Financial Impact on Low-Income Individuals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Feb. Report No.: GAO-10-217.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh EF. The development of comprehensive criminal justice leadership standards: A modified Delphi study approach [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Summit in Moscow: Comes the Next Generation; With Yeltsin Overture, Clinton Backs Early Meeting. New York Times. 1993 Jan 4;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Saudi Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Saudi Med.
ISSN (print)0256-4947
ISSN (online)0975-4466
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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