How to format your references using the Annals of Saudi Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Saudi Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harwood C. A microbiologist hopes to disrupt bacterial “decisions.” Nature. 2008 Sep 4;455(7209):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falk A, Szech N. Morals and markets. Science. 2013 May 10;340(6133):707–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rankenburg K, Brandon AD, Neal CR. Neodymium isotope evidence for a chondritic composition of the Moon. Science. 2006 Jun 2;312(5778):1369–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luu DT, Qin X, Morse D, Cappadocia M. S-RNase uptake by compatible pollen tubes in gametophytic self-incompatibility. Nature. 2000 Oct 5;407(6804):649–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans GM, Furlong JC. Environmental Biotechnology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Tognoli A, editor. Singularities of Analytic Spaces. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. 180 p. 24 illus. (C.I.M.E. Summer Schools; vol. 66).
A chapter in an edited book
Schumacher R, Seaver LH, Spranger J. Skeletal Dysplasias. In: Seaver LH, Spranger J, editors. Fetal Radiology: A Diagnostic Atlas. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 99–183.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Saudi Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Harbor Porpoises Must Eat All The Time To Live. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Meal Programs: Implications of Adjusting Income Eligibility Thresholds and Reimbursement Rates by Geographic Differences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jul. Report No.: GAO-14-557.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ouellette RL. Referral development results of relationship tie- strength for small business goal -directed networking groups [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fandos N, Shear MD. List of Russia Sanctions Is Provided to Congress. New York Times. 2017 Oct 26;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Saudi Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Saudi Med.
ISSN (print)0256-4947
ISSN (online)0975-4466
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles