How to format your references using the Annals of Saudi Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Saudi Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vidale JE. Geophysics. Peeling back the layers in Earth’s mantle. Science. 2001 Oct 12;294(5541):313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nodine MD, Bartel DP. Maternal and paternal genomes contribute equally to the transcriptome of early plant embryos. Nature. 2012 Jan 22;482(7383):94–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin TW, Dai CS, Hung KC. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D graphene and Fe3O4/graphene composite electrodes. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 2;4:7274.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Han Y, Li S, Cao X, Yuan L, Wang Y, Yin Y, et al. Different inhibitory effect and mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on normal cells and cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 20;4:7134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tolinski M. Plastics and Sustainability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Linkov I, Kiker GA, Wenning RJ, editors. Environmental Security in Harbors and Coastal Areas: Management Using Comparative Risk Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. XIII, 492 p. (NATO Security through Science Series, Series C: Environmental Security).
A chapter in an edited book
Miseres V. “The Personal is Political.” In: Gómez L, Horno-Delgado A, Long MK, Silleras-Fernández N, editors. Teaching Gender through Latin American, Latino, and Iberian Texts and Cultures. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015. p. 57–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Saudi Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. All-Female Flight Test Crew Asked How They Will Cope Without Make-Up Or Men In Space [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Advantages and Disadvantages of Wrap-Up Insurance for Large Construction Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jun. Report No.: RCED-99-155.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fisher JD. A profile of the chief student affairs officers of the California State University system [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson K. From Iraq to Oregon, a Global Lotto Jackpot. New York Times. 2015 Dec 13;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Saudi Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Saudi Med.
ISSN (print)0256-4947
ISSN (online)0975-4466
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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