How to format your references using the Global Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mitchell, K., 2010. Journal club. A neurodevelopmental geneticist explores how one mutation can lead to multiple diseases. Nature 464, 1107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palmer, M.A., Febria, C.M., 2012. Ecology. The heartbeat of ecosystems. Science 336, 1393–1394.
A journal article with 3 authors
Standen, E.M., Du, T.Y., Larsson, H.C.E., 2014. Developmental plasticity and the origin of tetrapods. Nature 513, 54–58.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roger, T., David, J., Glauser, M.P., Calandra, T., 2001. MIF regulates innate immune responses through modulation of Toll-like receptor 4. Nature 414, 920–924.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szeman, I., O’Brien, S., 2017. Popular Culture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zhang, Y. (Ed.), 2012. Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems: Volume 1, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhong, N., Huang, J.-J., 2015. Granular Structures Induced by Interval Sets and Rough Sets, in: Yao, Y., Hu, Q., Yu, H., Grzymala-Busse, J.W. (Eds.), Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining, and Granular Computing: 15th International Conference, RSFDGrC 2015, Tianjin, China, November 20-23, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Food Security.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Humane Shark Deterrent Prevents 90% of Encounters [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. No Child Left Behind Act: Assistance from Education Could Help States Better Measure Progress of Students with Limited English Proficiency (No. GAO-06-815). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winton, T.W., 2015. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Standards-based Grading and Student Performance (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2017. CBS Wrongly Reports Singer’s Death. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mitchell, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Mitchell, 2010; Palmer and Febria, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palmer and Febria, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Roger et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Food Security
AbbreviationGlob. Food Sec.
ISSN (print)2211-9124
ScopeFood Science
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Safety Research

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