How to format your references using the Global Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Foote, R., 2007. Mathematics and complex systems. Science 318, 410–412.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klitzman, R., Appelbaum, P.S., 2012. Research ethics. To protect human subjects, review what was done, not proposed. Science 335, 1576–1577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bix, M., Kim, S., Rao, A., 2005. Immunology. Opposites attract in differentiating T cells. Science 308, 1563–1565.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Park, H.-G., Kim, S.-H., Kwon, S.-H., Ju, Y.-G., Yang, J.-K., Baek, J.-H., Kim, S.-B., Lee, Y.-H., 2004. Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser. Science 305, 1444–1447.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli, D., 2004. A Networking Approach to Grid Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dalpiaz, F., Dix, J., Riemsdijk, M.B. van (Eds.), 2014. Engineering Multi-Agent Systems: Second International Workshop, EMAS 2014, Paris, France, May 5-6, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tepe, H., 2014. Rethinking Human Nature as a Basis for Human Rights, in: Albers, M., Hoffmann, T., Reinhardt, J. (Eds.), Human Rights and Human Nature, Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Food Security.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Hidden Scars On Brains Of Military Personnel Could Explain How Bomb Shockwaves Damage Cognition [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Privacy Data: The Data Encryption Standard Provides Valuable Protection (No. 132644). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sahib, S.S., 2010. Numerical solutions of Maxwell’s equations in 1D, 2D, and 3D via the finite element method (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2016. Streaming at the Top of Her Lungs. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Foote, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Foote, 2007; Klitzman and Appelbaum, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klitzman and Appelbaum, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Park et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Food Security
AbbreviationGlob. Food Sec.
ISSN (print)2211-9124
ScopeFood Science
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Safety Research

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