How to format your references using the Global Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D., 2000. Vaccine centres unite specialists in the battle against infectious diseases. Nature 408, 753–754.
A journal article with 2 authors
Queller, D.C., Strassmann, J.E., 2002. The many selves of social insects. Science 296, 311–313.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oldroyd, G.E.D., Harrison, M.J., Paszkowski, U., 2009. Reprogramming plant cells for endosymbiosis. Science 324, 753–754.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mo, Y., Wan, Y., Chau, A., Huang, F., 2014. Graphene/Ionic liquid composite films and ion exchange. Sci. Rep. 4, 5466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raynaud, H., Arrow, K.J., 2011. Managerial Logic. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Andreasen, T., Yager, R.R., Bulskov, H., Christiansen, H., Larsen, H.L. (Eds.), 2009. Flexible Query Answering Systems: 8th International Conference, FQAS 2009, Roskilde, Denmark, October 26-28, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Blom, A.B., van den Berg, W.B., 2007. The Synovium and Its Role in Osteoarthritis, in: Bronner, F., Farach-Carson, M.C. (Eds.), Bone and Osteoarthritis, Topics in Bone Biology. Springer, London, pp. 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Food Security.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. What Would Your Christmas Dinner Look Like Without Bees? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Technology Transfer: Federal Laboratory Consortium Should Increase Communication with Potential Customers to Improve Initiatives (No. GAO-15-127). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, M.W., 2017. The Louisiana Teacher Assault Pay Statute: An Analysis of Court Decisions Interpreting the Statute and a Comparative Study of Teacher Assault Pay Statutes in Other States (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2008. Graduation Rates Rise, and Bar Is Raised. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2000; Queller and Strassmann, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Queller and Strassmann, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Food Security
AbbreviationGlob. Food Sec.
ISSN (print)2211-9124
ScopeFood Science
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Safety Research

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