How to format your references using the Global Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Karnik, R.N., 2014. Materials science: Breakthrough for protons. Nature 516, 173–175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Majmudar, T.S., Behringer, R.P., 2005. Contact force measurements and stress-induced anisotropy in granular materials. Nature 435, 1079–1082.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wieczorek, M.A., Weiss, B.P., Stewart, S.T., 2012. An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies. Science 335, 1212–1215.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kondo, T., Sawa, S., Kinoshita, A., Mizuno, S., Kakimoto, T., Fukuda, H., Sakagami, Y., 2006. A plant peptide encoded by CLV3 identified by in situ MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Science 313, 845–848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gonzalez, R., Qi, F., Huang, B., 2016. Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Jawahar, C.V., Shan, S. (Eds.), 2015. Computer Vision - ACCV 2014 Workshops: Singapore, Singapore, November 1-2, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hunter, C.W., Lee, E.T., Deer, T.R., 2016. Preoperative Evaluation for Spinal Cord Stimulation, in: Deer, T.R., Pope, J.E. (Eds.), Atlas of Implantable Therapies for Pain Management. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 15–21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Food Security.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Stranded Astronauts Will Return To Earth After Month-Long Delay [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Update on the Readiness of the Social Security Administration (No. T-AIMD-99-90). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warrick, A.D., 2017. “Deep” South: Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, and Environmental Knowledge, 1800-1974 (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S.M., Surico, J., 2017. Three Shots and an Officer Down: Gripping Testimony in Queens. New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Karnik, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Karnik, 2014; Majmudar and Behringer, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Majmudar and Behringer, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kondo et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Food Security
AbbreviationGlob. Food Sec.
ISSN (print)2211-9124
ScopeFood Science
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Safety Research

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