How to format your references using the Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2005) Postdocs, mentor thyselves. Nature 434:415
A journal article with 2 authors
Heilbron JL, Bynum WF (2002) 1902 and all that. Nature 415:15–18
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen Y, Buick R, Canfield DE (2001) Isotopic evidence for microbial sulphate reduction in the early Archaean era. Nature 410:77–81
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Banerjee-Ghosh K, Ben Dor O, Tassinari F, et al (2018) Separation of enantiomers by their enantiospecific interaction with achiral magnetic substrates. Science 360:1331–1334

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Myatt GJ, Johnson WP (2011) Making Sense of Data III. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Scadding GK, Bull PD, Graham JM (2007) Pediatric ENT. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ochsner M, Hug SE, Daniel H-D (2016) Humanities Scholars’ Conceptions of Research Quality. In: Ochsner M, Hug SE, Daniel H-D (eds) Research Assessment in the Humanities: Towards Criteria and Procedures. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 43–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) These Two Black Holes Are On The Brink Of Merging Into One. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Earth Observing System: Broader Involvement of the EOSDIS User Community Is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Razzaghi M (2013) Quantum Tunneling in Hydride Transfer Reactions in Solution. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2014) Weekend Entertainments from the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C30

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovations in Systems and Software Engineering
AbbreviationInnov. Syst. Softw. Eng.
ISSN (print)1614-5046
ISSN (online)1614-5054

Other styles