How to format your references using the Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mignan A (2014) The debate on the prognostic value of earthquake foreshocks: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep 4:4099
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee RC, Ambros V (2001) An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 294:862–864
A journal article with 3 authors
Antonovics J, Hood ME, Baker CH (2006) Molecular virology: was the 1918 flu avian in origin? Nature 440:E9; discussion E9-10
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu B, Lu S, Hu Y-L, et al (2014) RhoA and membrane fluidity mediates the spatially polarized Src/FAK activation in response to shear stress. Sci Rep 4:7008

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Gumster J, Shimonski R (2010) GIMP Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Beck DE, Wexner SD, Hull TL, et al (2014) The ASCRS Manual of Colon and Rectal Surgery, 2nd ed. 2014. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Hu J (2014) The Probability That Random Positive Integers Are 3-Wise Relatively Prime. In: Nathanson MB (ed) Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory: CANT 2011 and 2012. Springer, New York, NY, pp 55–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How Testosterone And Oxytocin Hormones Interact In Male Work And Parenting Effort. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) District of Columbia: Performance Report Shows Continued Progress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez C (2014) Perceived efficacy of the O*NET Skills Search Tool among individuals with high functioning autism. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2016) Trump, the Insult Comic Candidate. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovations in Systems and Software Engineering
AbbreviationInnov. Syst. Softw. Eng.
ISSN (print)1614-5046
ISSN (online)1614-5054

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