How to format your references using the Ocean Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDowell N (2003) Joint European plan will tackle Africa’s killer diseases. Nature 421:5
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans JW, Thiel PA (2010) Chemistry. A little chemistry helps the big get bigger. Science 330:599–600
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang X, Minton TK, Zhang DH (2012) Chemistry. Rethinking chemical reactions at hyperthermal energies. Science 336:1650–1651
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Escartín J, Smith DK, Cann J, et al (2008) Central role of detachment faults in accretion of slow-spreading oceanic lithosphere. Nature 455:790–794

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duffy DJ (2006) Introduction to C++ for Financial Engineers. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Onji M (2008) Dendritic Cells in Clinics, 2nd Edition. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Hiptmair R, Perugia I (2009) Mixed Plane Wave Discontinuous Galerkin Methods. In: Bercovier M, Gander MJ, Kornhuber R, Widlund O (eds) Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XVIII. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 51–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Dynamics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Why Bigger Isn’t Always Better In The World Of Muscle Building. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) ADP Procurements: Food and Drug Administration Circumvented Procurement Regulations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hansell L (2017) Perceptions of Supervisor Ethical Behavior by Psychology Interns. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J (2017) Deal Set to Provide Care For Research Chimps. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McDowell 2003).
This sentence cites two references (McDowell 2003; Evans and Thiel 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Thiel 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Escartín et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Dynamics
AbbreviationOcean Dyn.
ISSN (print)1616-7341
ISSN (online)1616-7228

Other styles