How to format your references using the Global Energy Interconnection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Energy Interconnection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.R. Edlin, Perspective: test and treat this silent killer, Nature. 474 (2011) S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.S. Mattick, M.J. Gagen, Mathematics/computation. Accelerating networks, Science. 307 (2005) 856–858.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Liljas, M. Ehrenberg, J. Åqvist, Comment on “The mechanism for activation of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome,” Science. 333 (2011) 37; author reply 37.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.M. Craig, D. Delay, M.A. Grealy, D.N. Lee, Guiding the swing in golf putting, Nature. 405 (2000) 295–296.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Paret, Flexray and its Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
H. Mori, H. Matsuda, eds., Cardiovascular Regeneration Therapies Using Tissue Engineering Approaches, Springer, Tokyo, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Barro, E. Canestrelli, P. Ciurlia, Spatial Aggregation in Scenario Tree Reduction, in: C. Perna, M. Sibillo (Eds.), Mathematical and Statistical Methods in Insurance and Finance, Springer, Milano, 2008: pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Energy Interconnection.

Blog post
E. Andrew, John Nash: A Beautiful Mind And Its Exquisite Mathematics, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA Budget: Important Challenges Affecting Aviation Safety, Capacity, and Efficiency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. De la Pena Wing, Remembering Malintzin’s dream: A bridge between two cultures through language and love, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, 2017 Sundance Film Festival Short Film Tour, New York Times. (2017) C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Energy Interconnection
ISSN (print)2096-5117

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