How to format your references using the Global Energy Interconnection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Energy Interconnection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W.G. Hill, Genetics. A century of corn selection, Science. 307 (2005) 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.G. Falkowski, C.S. Davis, Natural proportions, Nature. 431 (2004) 131.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Schefuss, S. Schouten, R.R. Schneider, Climatic controls on central African hydrology during the past 20,000 years, Nature. 437 (2005) 1003–1006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Kang, J. Dai, H. Sun, Y. Hou, J. Yuan, Quantum simulation of thermally-driven phase transition and oxygen K-edge x-ray absorption of high-pressure ice, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3272.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Kharmanda, A. El Hami, Reliability in Biomechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
M. Ashokkumar, ed., Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Fleming, The Indeterminacy of Desire and Practical Reason, in: D.K. Chan (Ed.), Moral Psychology Today: Essays on Values, Rational Choice, and the Will, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008: pp. 95–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Energy Interconnection.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Dinosaur Embryo Returned To China, But Many Fossils Fall Victim To Illegal Trade And Poor Protection, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Health Information Systems: National Practitioner Data Bank Continues to Experience Problems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.A. Smith, Impact of animal assisted therapy reading instruction on reading performance of homeschooled students, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Novick, Where Po’ Boys Will Be Po’ Boys, New York Times. (2016) LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Energy Interconnection
ISSN (print)2096-5117

Other styles