How to format your references using the Brain Stimulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Stimulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Baker M. Postdoc redefined. Nature 2007;446:1114.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Keith DW, Farrell AE. Environmental science. Rethinking hydrogen cars. Science 2003;301:315–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Gardner TS, Cantor CR, Collins JJ. Construction of a genetic toggle switch in Escherichia coli. Nature 2000;403:339–42.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Lenggenhager B, Tadi T, Metzinger T, Blanke O. Video ergo sum: manipulating bodily self-consciousness. Science 2007;317:1096–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Nguyen T. Investing in the High Yield Municipal Market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Rebeiz CA, Benning C, Bohnert HJ, Daniell H, Hoober JK, Lichtenthaler HK, et al., editors. The Chloroplast: Basics and Applications. vol. 31. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Nunez-Yanez J. Computing to the Limit with Heterogeneous CPU-FPGA Devices in a Video Fusion Application. In: Bonato V, Bouganis C, Gorgon M, editors. Applied Reconfigurable Computing: 12th International Symposium, ARC 2016 Mangaratiba, RJ, Brazil, March 22–24, 2016 Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 41–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Stimulation.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. How “Star In A Jar” Technology Could Change Our World Forever. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/space/how-star-in-a-jar-technology-could-change-our-world-forever/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. General Accounting Office Reviews of Federal Environmental Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Nakano AM. Community college swirlers and the transfer function. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. Justices Weigh Whether Railroad Retaliated Against Worker. New York Times 2006:A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Stimulation
AbbreviationBrain Stimul.
ISSN (print)1935-861X
ScopeBiophysics
Clinical Neurology
General Neuroscience

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