How to format your references using the Brain Stimulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Stimulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Smaglik P. Balancing the books. Nature 2004;428:781.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Pörtner HO, Farrell AP. Ecology. Physiology and climate change. Science 2008;322:690–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Hautier Y, Niklaus PA, Hector A. Competition for light causes plant biodiversity loss after eutrophication. Science 2009;324:636–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Wynn JG, Alemseged Z, Bobe R, Geraads D, Reed D, Roman DC. Geological and palaeontological context of a Pliocene juvenile hominin at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 2006;443:332–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Negre E. Information and Recommender Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Lenard TM, May RJ, editors. Net Neutrality or Net Neutering: Should Broadband Internet Services be Regulated. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Candilis PJ, Weinstock R, Martinez R. Robust Professionalism: Beyond Role. In: Weinstock R, Martinez R, editors. Forensic Ethics and the Expert Witness, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007, p. 97–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Stimulation.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Another Chimpanzee Personhood Claim Fails, But There’s Hope Yet. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/another-chimpanzee-personhood-claim-fails-there-s-hope-yet/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Domestic Aviation: Barriers Continue to Limit Competition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Millar CL. Re-specting graffiti: Transgression at play in art, language, and ritual. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
CHRISTOPHER KELLY; Christopher Kelly is a fellow in ancient history at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Paganism Was Alive and Well. New York Times 1990:743.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Stimulation
AbbreviationBrain Stimul.
ISSN (print)1935-861X
ScopeBiophysics
Clinical Neurology
General Neuroscience

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