How to format your references using the Brain Stimulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Stimulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Ittekkot V. Geochemistry. A new story from the Ol’ Man River. Science 2003;301:56–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Donia MS, Fischbach MA. HUMAN MICROBIOTA. Small molecules from the human microbiota. Science 2015;349:1254766.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Nagornova NS, Rizzo TR, Boyarkin OV. Interplay of intra- and intermolecular H-bonding in a progressively solvated macrocyclic peptide. Science 2012;336:320–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Kanno Y, Kawashita E, Kokado A, Kuretake H, Ikeda K, Okada K, et al. α2AP mediated myofibroblast formation and the development of renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction. Sci Rep 2014;4:5967.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
McCurley L. Professional Rope Access. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Thaung KS, editor. Advanced Information Technology in Education. vol. 126. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Campbell M, Zegwaard KE. Developing Critical Moral Agency Through Workplace Engagement. In: Kennedy M, Billett S, Gherardi S, Grealish L, editors. Practice-based Learning in Higher Education: Jostling Cultures, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015, p. 47–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Stimulation.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Dinosaurs May Have Had Babysitters. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/dinosaurs-may-have-had-babysitters/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Customs Service Modernization: Automated Commercial Environment Progressing, but Further Acquisition Management Improvements Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Gill GJ. The experience of family caregiving of the terminally ill: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Rutenberg J, Steel E, Koblin J. Kisses and Fear for the Women From Fox News. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Stimulation
AbbreviationBrain Stimul.
ISSN (print)1935-861X
ScopeBiophysics
Clinical Neurology
General Neuroscience

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