How to format your references using the Journal of Functional Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Functional Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norreys, P.A. Physics. Controlling Implosion Symmetry around a Deuterium-Tritium Target. Science 2010, 327, 1208–1210.
A journal article with 2 authors
Divakaruni, A.S.; Murphy, A.N. Cell Biology. A Mitochondrial Mystery, Solved. Science 2012, 337, 41–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, H.; Westhof, E.; Johansen, S. An MRNA Is Capped by a 2’, 5’ Lariat Catalyzed by a Group I-like Ribozyme. Science 2005, 309, 1584–1587.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, F.; Li, P.; Wang, D.; Li, L.; Xie, S.; Liu, L.; Wang, Y.; Li, W.J. Mechanically Modulated Dewetting by Atomic Force Microscope for Micro- and Nano- Droplet Array Fabrication. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper, N.; Forrest, K.; Cramp, P. Essential Guide to Acute Care; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470757901.
An edited book
Budka, K.C. Communication Networks for Smart Grids: Making Smart Grid Real; Deshpande, J.G., Thottan, M., Eds.; Computer Communications and Networks; Springer: London, 2014; ISBN 9781447163015.
A chapter in an edited book
Cuartielles, D.; Göransson, A.; Olsson, T.; Stenslie, S. Mobile Haptic Technology Development through Artistic Exploration. In Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 7th International Conference, HAID 2012, Lund, Sweden, August 23-24, 2012. Proceedings; Magnusson, C., Szymczak, D., Brewster, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 31–40 ISBN 9783642327957.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Functional Biomaterials.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Weak Gravity Can Be Explained With 10 Million Billion New Particles Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FCC: Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trump, R.K. Self -Brand Overlap and Dissociation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt, E. U.S. Says Its ISIS Fight Isn’t Raising Civilian Risks. New York Times 2017, A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Functional Biomaterials
AbbreviationJ. Funct. Biomater.
ISSN (online)2079-4983

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