How to format your references using the Journal of Functional Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Functional Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klemperer, W. Astronomy. The Complex Story of H2. Science 2001, 293, 815–816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morandi, B.; Carreira, E.M. Iron-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation in 6 M KOH with in Situ Generation of Diazomethane. Science 2012, 335, 1471–1474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, S.; Evans, P.; Hawkesworth, C. Ultrafast Source-to-Surface Movement of Melt at Island Arcs from 226Ra-230Th Systematics. Science 2001, 292, 1363–1366.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Matsuura, I.; Denissova, N.G.; Wang, G.; He, D.; Long, J.; Liu, F. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Regulate the Antiproliferative Function of Smads. Nature 2004, 430, 226–231.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samara, T. ERP and Information Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119232643.
An edited book
Preference Learning; Fürnkranz, J., Hüllermeier, E., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; ISBN 9783642141249.
A chapter in an edited book
Vadnal, K.; Košmelj, K. Social services as supplementary on-farm activity for mentally disabled people. In FARMING FOR HEALTH; Hassink, J., Van Dijk, M., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; pp. 57–72 ISBN 9781402045400.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Functional Biomaterials.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. How Authentic Are Photographic Memories? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Manufacturing: Status of FAA’s Efforts to Improve Certification and Regulatory Consistency; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darwich, M.K. Cost-Efficient Video On Demand (VOD) Streaming Using Cloud Services. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. “Seagull” Served 3 Ways On Russian Stage Menu. New York Times 2004, E3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Functional Biomaterials
AbbreviationJ. Funct. Biomater.
ISSN (online)2079-4983

Other styles