How to format your references using the Journal of Functional Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Functional Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kennedy, S. Epidemiology. Why can’t we test our way to absolute food safety? Science 2008, 322, 1641–1643.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas, G.L.; Thorne, R.E. Night-time predation by Steller sea lions. Nature 2001, 411, 1013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson, P.D.; Moje, E.; Greenleaf, C. Literacy and science: each in the service of the other. Science 2010, 328, 459–463.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wimberly, B.T.; Brodersen, D.E.; Clemons, W.M., Jr; Morgan-Warren, R.J.; Carter, A.P.; Vonrhein, C.; Hartsch, T.; Ramakrishnan, V. Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit. Nature 2000, 407, 327–339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous, A. Fracture Mechanics 3; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA, 2012; ISBN 9781118580158.
An edited book
Cloud Computing and Services Science: Third International Conference, CLOSER 2013, Aachen, Germany, May 8-10, 2013, Revised Selected Papers; Helfert, M., Desprez, F., Ferguson, D., Leymann, F., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 453; ISBN 9783319115603.
A chapter in an edited book
AL-Hussaini, E.K.; Ahsanullah, M. Family of Exponentiated Exponential Distribution. In Exponentiated Distributions; Ahsanullah, M., Ed.; Atlantis Studies in Probability and Statistics; Atlantis Press: Paris, 2015; pp. 81–102 ISBN 9789462390782.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Functional Biomaterials.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Primitive Meteorites Brought Water To Early Earth Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Strategic Mobility: Late Deliveries of Large, Medium Speed Roll-On/Roll-Off Ships; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doss, A. Trapped within the white gaze: A DuBoisian approach to understanding the existential burden of being a black man in America. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. Sky’s the Limit: Yogis Head Outdoors. New York Times 2011, MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Functional Biomaterials
AbbreviationJ. Funct. Biomater.
ISSN (online)2079-4983

Other styles