How to format your references using the Journal of Functional Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Functional Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rocha, E.P.C. Evolution. With a Little Help from Prokaryotes. Science 2013, 339, 1154–1155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scholes, R.J.; Noble, I.R. Climate Change. Storing Carbon on Land. Science 2001, 294, 1012–1013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhlen, M.; Madau, P.; Silk, J. Exploring Dark Matter with Milky Way Substructure. Science 2009, 325, 970–973.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cardin, J.A.; Carlén, M.; Meletis, K.; Knoblich, U.; Zhang, F.; Deisseroth, K.; Tsai, L.-H.; Moore, C.I. Driving Fast-Spiking Cells Induces Gamma Rhythm and Controls Sensory Responses. Nature 2009, 459, 663–667.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bill Huitt, W.M. Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment Design; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119284260.
An edited book
Transforming Clothing Production into a Demand-Driven, Knowledge-Based, High-Tech Industry: The Leapfrog Paradigm; Walter, L., Kartsounis, G.-A., Carosio, S., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; ISBN 9781848826076.
A chapter in an edited book
Hayashi, T.; Raz, E. Immunostimulatory (CpG) DNA-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Allergic Disease. In Allergy Frontiers: Future Perspectives; Pawankar, R., Holgate, S.T., Rosenwasser, L.J., Eds.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2010; pp. 65–77 ISBN 9784431993643.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Functional Biomaterials.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Scientists Have Managed To Probe The Icy Interior Of Ceres Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Office of Federal Student Aid: Better Strategic and Human Capital Planning Would Help Sustain Management Progress; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pettengill, J.B. Elucidating the Macro- and Micro-Evolutionary Relationships of the Federally Listed Endangered Species Agalinis Acuta (Orobanchaceae). Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F. New Meters Get a Mixed Review. New York Times 2006, 14LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Functional Biomaterials
AbbreviationJ. Funct. Biomater.
ISSN (online)2079-4983

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