How to format your references using the Journal of Functional Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Functional Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mundy, D. Recruiters and academia. Lessons learned from a denied grant. Zen and the art of grant application. Nature 2005, 435, 382.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sander, P.M.; Klein, N. Developmental plasticity in the life history of a prosauropod dinosaur. Science 2005, 310, 1800–1802.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thibodeaux, C.J.; Melançon, C.E.; Liu, H.-W. Unusual sugar biosynthesis and natural product glycodiversification. Nature 2007, 446, 1008–1016.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nef, S.; Verma-Kurvari, S.; Merenmies, J.; Vassalli, J.-D.; Efstratiadis, A.; Accili, D.; Parada, L.F. Testis determination requires insulin receptor family function in mice. Nature 2003, 426, 291–295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhaduri, S.; Mukesh, D. Homogeneous Catalysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118872369.
An edited book
Proceedings of International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Advanced Devices, Signals & Systems and Networking (VCASAN-2013); Chakravarthi, V.S., Shirur, Y.J.M., Prasad, R., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Springer India: New Delhi, 2013; Vol. 258; ISBN 9788132215233.
A chapter in an edited book
Dragon, R.; Fenzi, M.; Siberski, W.; Rosenhahn, B.; Ostermann, J. Towards Feature-Based Situation Assessment for Airport Apron Video Surveillance. In Outdoor and Large-Scale Real-World Scene Analysis: 15th International Workshop on Theoretical Foundations of Computer Vision, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, June 26 - July 1, 2011. Revised Selected Papers; Dellaert, F., Frahm, J.-M., Pollefeys, M., Leal-Taixé, L., Rosenhahn, B., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 110–130 ISBN 9783642340901.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Functional Biomaterials.

Blog post
Hale, T. A Dolphin Pod Put On Quite A Show In This Stunning Footage Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology Management: Coast Guard Practices Can Be Improved; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinh, H. A study of cell-based genetic algorithms with applications to neural networks. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. Philip Gossett, Scholar, 75; Revived Lost Opera Scores. New York Times 2017, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Functional Biomaterials
AbbreviationJ. Funct. Biomater.
ISSN (online)2079-4983

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