How to format your references using the Journal of Functional Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Functional Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenberg, S.A. Progress in Human Tumour Immunology and Immunotherapy. Nature 2001, 411, 380–384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moscou, M.J.; Bogdanove, A.J. A Simple Cipher Governs DNA Recognition by TAL Effectors. Science 2009, 326, 1501.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vais, H.; Foskett, J.K.; Mak, D.-O.D. InsP3R Channel Gating Altered by Clustering? Nature 2011, 478, E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Da Mesquita, S.; Louveau, A.; Vaccari, A.; Smirnov, I.; Cornelison, R.C.; Kingsmore, K.M.; Contarino, C.; Onengut-Gumuscu, S.; Farber, E.; Raper, D.; et al. Functional Aspects of Meningeal Lymphatics in Ageing and Alzheimer’s Disease. Nature 2018, 560, 185–191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chiang, H.-D. Direct Methods for Stability Analysis of Electric Power Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470872130.
An edited book
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Antibody Activity; Nimmerjahn, F., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461471066.
A chapter in an edited book
Mashiko, H.; Bell, M.J.; Beck, A.R.; Neumark, D.M.; Leone, S.R. Frequency Tunable Attosecond Apparatus. In Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science: Volume X; Yamanouchi, K., Paulus, G.G., Mathur, D., Eds.; Springer Series in Chemical Physics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 49–63 ISBN 9783319005201.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Functional Biomaterials.

Blog post
Davis, J. The Giant Panda Is No Longer Considered “Endangered” Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office SSA ADP Budget: Suggested Reductions to Fiscal Year 1991 Budget; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liburd-Shaddai, J.L. The Experiences of Remedial Instructors at One Urban Community College: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F. In Great Neck, a Debate On Firefighter Housing. New York Times 2006, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Functional Biomaterials
AbbreviationJ. Funct. Biomater.
ISSN (online)2079-4983

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