How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pirandola, S., 2014. Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography. Sci. Rep. 4, 6956.
A journal article with 2 authors
Körner, C., Basler, D., 2010. Plant science. Phenology under global warming. Science 327, 1461–1462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-Shem, A., Frolow, F., Nelson, N., 2003. Crystal structure of plant photosystem I. Nature 426, 630–635.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Matsuda, K., Miura, E., Miyazaki, T., Kakegawa, W., Emi, K., Narumi, S., Fukazawa, Y., Ito-Ishida, A., Kondo, T., Shigemoto, R., Watanabe, M., Yuzaki, M., 2010. Cbln1 is a ligand for an orphan glutamate receptor delta2, a bidirectional synapse organizer. Science 328, 363–368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, P., Brousse, T., Favier, F., 2017. Supercapacitors Based on Carbon or Pseudocapacitive Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Korvink, J.G., Paul, O. (Eds.), 2006. MEMS: A Practical Guide to Design, Analysis, and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Paschen, M., Dihsmaier, E., 2014. Leadership, Challenge, and Perspective: How to Generate Leadership Strength Using Stimulating and Enticing Goals, in: Dihsmaier, E. (Ed.), The Psychology of Human Leadership: How To Develop Charisma and Authority. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 109–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Hearing Restored in Mice with Genetic Deafness using Gene Therapy [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. School Finance: Three States’ Experiences With Equity in School Funding (No. HEHS-96-39). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Witowski, L.L., 2008. The relationship between instructional delivery methods and student learning preferences: What contributes to student satisfaction in an online learning environment? (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M., 2017. Mom and Pop Own Fewer Rentals. New York Times RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pirandola, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Körner and Basler, 2010; Pirandola, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Körner and Basler, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Matsuda et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2351-9894

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