How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McLaren, J.R., 2014. Ecology: Diversity in the afterlife. Nature 509, 173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vigevani, L., Valcárcel, J., 2014. Molecular biology. A splicing magic bullet. Science 345, 624–625.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allard, P., Burton, M., Muré, F., 2005. Spectroscopic evidence for a lava fountain driven by previously accumulated magmatic gas. Nature 433, 407–410.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nishiyama, M., Hong, K., Mikoshiba, K., Poo, M.M., Kato, K., 2000. Calcium stores regulate the polarity and input specificity of synaptic modification. Nature 408, 584–588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stolarski, T.A., Tobe, S., 2000. Rolling Contacts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Trecca, A. (Ed.), 2012. Ileoscopy: Technique, Diagnosis, and Clinical Applications. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Kawecki, K., Seredyński, F., Pilski, M., 2006. Controlling Spam: Immunity-based Approach, in: Kłopotek, M.A., Wierzchoń, S.T., Trojanowski, K. (Eds.), Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining: Proceedings of the International IIS: IIPWM’06 Conference Held in Ustrón, Poland, June 19-22, 2006, Advances in Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. What The Tim Hunt Brouhaha Shows About How Junior And Senior Academic Voices Are Heard [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve Their Application Inventories to Achieve Additional Savings (No. GAO-16-511). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaeffler, K.P., 2015. From Flag Officer to Corporate Leader: A Phenomenological Study of the Influence of Career Transition on Executive Leadership and Professional Identity (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gasson, J., 2016. Swept Away. New York Times M2138.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McLaren, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (McLaren, 2014; Vigevani and Valcárcel, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vigevani and Valcárcel, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishiyama et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2351-9894

Other styles