How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M., 2006. Biochemist strikes gold. Nature 441, 689.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamm, J.M., Hess, O., 2013. Physics. Two two-dimensional materials are better than one. Science 340, 1298–1299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hermanson, O., Jepsen, K., Rosenfeld, M.G., 2002. N-CoR controls differentiation of neural stem cells into astrocytes. Nature 419, 934–939.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hosten, O., Rakher, M.T., Barreiro, J.T., Peters, N.A., Kwiat, P.G., 2006. Counterfactual quantum computation through quantum interrogation. Nature 439, 949–952.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sanders, S., 2015. Seizures in Dogs and Cats. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lo, J.-J., Leatham, K.R., Van Zoest, L.R. (Eds.), 2014. Research Trends in Mathematics Teacher Education, Research in Mathematics Education. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Gao, X., Ren, X., Zhang, C., Zhu, C., 2016. Online Identification and Robust Adaptive Control for Discrete Hysteresis Preisach Model, in: Jia, Y., Du, J., Li, H., Zhang, W. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference: Volume 1, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 41–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Sea Level Rise Is Almost Certain To Ravage The World’s Major Coastal Cities By 2100 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Computer Security: FAA Is Addressing Personnel Weaknesses, But Further Action Is Required (No. AIMD-00-169). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaplan, J.W., 2014. Not a sonata: A conception of Sonata-Allegro form and a consideration of two marimba works from a Langerian perspective (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L., 2010. Michelle McGann and Jonathan Satter. New York Times ST10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hamm and Hess, 2013; Wadman, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hamm and Hess, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hosten et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2351-9894

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