How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livio, M., 2012. Physics: Why symmetry matters. Nature 490, 472–473.
A journal article with 2 authors
Purvis, A., Hector, A., 2000. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature 405, 212–219.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiesecker, J.M., Blaustein, A.R., Belden, L.K., 2001. Complex causes of amphibian population declines. Nature 410, 681–684.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vaudry, D., Stork, P.J.S., Lazarovici, P., Eiden, L.E., 2002. Signaling pathways for PC12 cell differentiation: making the right connections. Science 296, 1648–1649.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, S.M., 2010. Cost Reduction Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nagy, Z.P., Varghese, A.C., Agarwal, A. (Eds.), 2012. Practical Manual of In Vitro Fertilization: Advanced Methods and Novel Devices. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Muñoz, J., Egusquiza, I.L., Campo, A. del, Seidel, D., Muga, J.G., 2009. Dwell-Time Distributions in Quantum Mechanics, in: Muga, G., Ruschhaupt, A., Campo, A. del (Eds.), Time in Quantum Mechanics - Vol. 2, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 97–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Bedbug Trap On The Way [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1985. School District Officials Face Problems in Dealing With Asbestos in Their Schools (No. RCED-85-91). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Than, K., 2015. The impact of companion pets on the well-being of older adults (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rich, N., 2013. Just Roll, Baby. New York Times MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livio, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Livio, 2012; Purvis and Hector, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Purvis and Hector, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Vaudry et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2351-9894

Other styles