How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A., 2002. Mouse genome: The real deal. Nature 420, 456–457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, X., Chory, J., 2006. Brassinosteroids regulate dissociation of BKI1, a negative regulator of BRI1 signaling, from the plasma membrane. Science 313, 1118–1122.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cook-Deegan, R., Chandrasekharan, S., Angrist, M., 2009. The dangers of diagnostic monopolies. Nature 458, 405–406.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schmidt, M., Kahlert, U., Wessolleck, J., Maciaczyk, D., Merkt, B., Maciaczyk, J., Osterholz, J., Nikkhah, G., Steinhauser, M.O., 2014. Characterization of a setup to test the impact of high-amplitude pressure waves on living cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 3849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Utsuro, M., Ignatovich, V.K., 2010. Handbook of Neutron Optics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Fong, I.W., Alibeck, K. (Eds.), 2007. New and Evolving Infections of the 21st Century. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Metwally, S., Ouda, O.M., Helmy, M., 2014. Challenges in the Next-Generation Sequencing Field, in: Ouda, O.M., Helmy, M. (Eds.), Next Generation Sequencing Technologies and Challenges in Sequence Assembly, SpringerBriefs in Systems Biology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 45–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. World’s Oldest Broken Bone Pushes Back Our Transition to Land by Two Million Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Comments on Department of Education Use of Subsequent-Year Appropriations (No. B-236667). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, W.A., 2010. Every citizen a soldier: The U.S. Army’s campaign for universal military training following World War II (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J., 2017. The Call of the Wild. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2002; Wang and Chory, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Chory, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmidt et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2351-9894

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