How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, J., 2014. Breakdown + Breakdown runners-up. Science 346, 1450–1451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, C.A., Bushman, B.J., 2002. Psychology. The effects of media violence on society. Science 295, 2377–2379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akbarzadeh, A., Qiu, C.-W., Danner, A.J., 2013. Exploiting design freedom in biaxial dielectrics to enable spatially overlapping optical instruments. Sci. Rep. 3, 2055.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Clark, P.U., McCabe, A.M., Mix, A.C., Weaver, A.J., 2004. Rapid rise of sea level 19,000 years ago and its global implications. Science 304, 1141–1144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz, D., 2010. The Future of Finance. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809.
An edited book
Ramiro Fariñas, D., Oris, M. (Eds.), 2016. New Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition, International Studies in Population. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Gartner, G., 2007. Development of Multimedia — Mobile and Ubiquitous, in: Cartwright, W., Peterson, M.P., Gartner, G. (Eds.), Multimedia Cartography. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Spectacular GoPro Footage Of Polar Bears Searching For Ice [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. For-Profit Schools: Large Schools and Schools that Specialize in Healthcare Are More Likely to Rely Heavily on Federal Student Aid (No. GAO-11-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purdy, D.W., 2017. Identifying Shallow Foundation Failure Modes and Mechanisms Using Surveillance of a Transparent Granular Soil Surrogate (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marchese, J., 2016. ‘I Just Love What I’m Doing.’ New York Times AR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson and Bushman, 2002; Cohen, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and Bushman, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Clark et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2351-9894

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