How to format your references using the BMC Biochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Biochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pulverer B. Transparency showcases strength of peer review. Nature. 2010;468:29–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bollinger JM Jr, Matthews ML. Biochemistry. Remote enzyme microsurgery. Science. 2010;327:1337–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tay Y, Rinn J, Pandolfi PP. The multilayered complexity of ceRNA crosstalk and competition. Nature. 2014;505:344–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cardone L, Hirayama J, Giordano F, Tamaru T, Palvimo JJ, Sassone-Corsi P. Circadian clock control by SUMOylation of BMAL1. Science. 2005;309:1390–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Belfiore LA. Transport Phenomena for Chemical Reactor Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2003.
An edited book
1. Uzan J-P. The Natural Laws of the Universe: Understanding Fundamental Constants. New York, NY: Praxis; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lucken MF. Exclusionary Structure or Cultural Clash, why do Immigrants Dropout? a Comparison of One Group in Two Different Countries. In: Urias DA, editor. The Immigration & Education Nexus: A Focus on the Context & Consequences of Schooling. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012. p. 83–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Biochemistry.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. What You Need To Know About Genetically Modified Organisms. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety: New Risk Assessment Program Could Help Evaluate Inspection Cycle. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chambers S. Telecommunications megamergers: Impact on employee morale and turnover intention. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. First-Base Prospect Finally Lives the Dream During a Mets Victory. New York Times. 2017;:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Biochemistry
AbbreviationBMC Biochem.
ISSN (online)1471-2091
Molecular Biology

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