How to format your references using the Global Crime citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Crime. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hynek, Brian M. “Implications for Hydrologic Processes on Mars from Extensive Bedrock Outcrops throughout Terra Meridiani.” Nature 431, no. 7005 (September 9, 2004): 156–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karpicke, Jeffrey D., and Henry L. Roediger 3rd. “The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319, no. 5865 (February 15, 2008): 966–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sigman, Daniel M., Mathis P. Hain, and Gerald H. Haug. “The Polar Ocean and Glacial Cycles in Atmospheric CO(2) Concentration.” Nature 466, no. 7302 (July 1, 2010): 47–55.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rämet, Mika, Pascal Manfruelli, Alan Pearson, Bernard Mathey-Prevot, and R. Alan B. Ezekowitz. “Functional Genomic Analysis of Phagocytosis and Identification of a Drosophila Receptor for E. Coli.” Nature 416, no. 6881 (April 11, 2002): 644–48.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nova, Roberto. Soil Mechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Pignolo, Robert J., Monica K. Crane, and Mary Ann Forciea, eds. Classic Papers in Geriatric Medicine with Current Commentaries. Aging Medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Murakami, Daisuke, and Yoshiki Yamagata. “Flood Risk Management in Cities.” In Urban Resilience: A Transformative Approach, edited by Yoshiki Yamagata and Hiroshi Maruyama, 63–77. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Crime.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. “Can Stem Cell Therapy Really Treat Multiple Sclerosis?” IFLScience. IFLScience, August 9, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s Efforts to Ensure Bank Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 10, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ivy, Janine. “The Psychological Effect of Parental Incarceration on School-Age Children.” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, Ken, and Ben Shpigel. “Supersized Payback Is in Sight.” New York Times, January 19, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Crime
ISSN (print)1744-0572
ISSN (online)1744-0580
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles