How to format your references using the Global Crime citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Crime. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roses, A. D. “Pharmacogenetics and the Practice of Medicine.” Nature 405, no. 6788 (June 15, 2000): 857–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenberg, C., and I. Goldhirsch. “Friction Enhances Elasticity in Granular Solids.” Nature 435, no. 7039 (May 12, 2005): 188–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghimire, Anil, Eyal Shafran, and Jordan M. Gerton. “Using a Sharp Metal Tip to Control the Polarization and Direction of Emission from a Quantum Dot.” Scientific Reports 4 (September 24, 2014): 6456.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nakayama, Yuri, Peter J. Pauzauskie, Aleksandra Radenovic, Robert M. Onorato, Richard J. Saykally, Jan Liphardt, and Peidong Yang. “Tunable Nanowire Nonlinear Optical Probe.” Nature 447, no. 7148 (June 28, 2007): 1098–1101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Di Stefano, Michael. Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
Munné, Antoni, Antoni Ginebreda, and Narcís Prat, eds. Experiences from Surface Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part I). 1st ed. 2016. Vol. 42. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Romero-Puertas, María C., Ana P. Ortega-Galisteo, María Rodríguez-Serrano, and Luisa M. Sandalio. “Insights into Cadmium Toxicity: Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Function.” In Metal Toxicity in Plants: Perception, Signaling and Remediation, edited by Dharmendra K. Gupta and Luisa M. Sandalio, 91–117. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Crime.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Teenage Girl in China Grows New Face on Her Chest.” IFLScience. IFLScience, October 31, 2013.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Federal Bureau of Investigation: Actions Taken to Address Most Procurement Recommendations.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 6, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, Bari N. “Middle School English Language Learner Electronic Media Usage and Its Relationship to Reading.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, Neil, and Andrew E. Kramer. “As the Ruble Swoons, Russians Desperately Shop.” New York Times, December 17, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Crime
ISSN (print)1744-0572
ISSN (online)1744-0580
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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