How to format your references using the Artificial Life and Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Life and Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone R (2000) EASTERN EUROPE: Serbian University Law Causes Turmoil. Science 290:691
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher CR, Girguis P (2007) Microbiology. A proteomic snapshot of life at a vent. Science 315:198–199
A journal article with 3 authors
Hines PJ, Wible B, McCartney M (2010) Science, language, and literacy. Learning to read, reading to learn. Introduction. Science 328:447
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhao X, Meng G, Han F, et al (2013) Nanocontainers made of various materials with tunable shape and size. Sci Rep 3:2238

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kraehmer H, Baur P (2013) Weed Anatomy. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Karasavvoglou A, Polychronidou P (2013) Balkan and Eastern European Countries in the Midst of the Global Economic Crisis. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Su C-C, Wei C-H, Li Y-S, Yang P-H (2014) High Performance Microelectronic Molding Compounds Cured with Organophosphine Accelerators. In: Juang J, Chen C-Y, Yang C-F (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems (ICITES2013). Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 27–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Life and Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How Floating Turbines Could Harness The Awesome Power Of The Tides. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships Needed to Mitigate Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughn EL (2013) Find me on Facebook: A new typology for categorizing online personalities. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2014) ‘A Coarse Pleasure’ In Stories of Impostors. New York Times A25B

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial Life and Robotics
AbbreviationArtif. Life Robot.
ISSN (print)1433-5298
ISSN (online)1614-7456
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Artificial Intelligence

Other styles