How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howard, K. (2003). The view from the top. Nature 426, 696–697.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hyman, T., and Simons, K. (2007). A pipeline for Europe. Nature 449, 256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walsh, J. P., Cho, C., and Cohen, W. M. (2005). Science and law. View from the bench: patents and material transfers. Science 309, 2002–2003.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Arnett, H. A., Fancy, S. P. J., Alberta, J. A., Zhao, C., Plant, S. R., Kaing, S., et al. (2004). bHLH transcription factor Olig1 is required to repair demyelinated lesions in the CNS. Science 306, 2111–2115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolf, V. (2012). The Years. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Araújo, V. (2010). Three-Dimensional Flows. , ed. M. J. Pacifico Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandkuhl, K. (2016). “On the Role of Enterprise Modelling in Engineering Cyber-Physical Systems,” in Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 15th International Conference, BIR 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, September 15–16, 2016, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing., eds. V. Řepa and T. Bruckner (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 50–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Why You Shouldn’t Order Human Breast Milk For Adults Online. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). From School to Work. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nevin, M. J. (2017). Addressing the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods Associated with Participation in Student Government Associations: A Qualitative Study of California Community Colleges.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., and Barry, E. (2013). At Bolshoi, Regrets And a New Appointment. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Howard, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Howard, 2003; Hyman and Simons, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hyman and Simons, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Arnett et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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