How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hawley, R. S. (2011). Molecular biology. Hitting a tiny target in the dark. Science 331, 870–871.
A journal article with 2 authors
Francesconi, M., and Lehner, B. (2014). The effects of genetic variation on gene expression dynamics during development. Nature 505, 208–211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shay, J. W., Reddel, R. R., and Wright, W. E. (2012). Cancer. Cancer and telomeres--an ALTernative to telomerase. Science 336, 1388–1390.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li, L., Thomas, R. M., Suzuki, H., De Brabander, J. K., Wang, X., and Harran, P. G. (2004). A small molecule Smac mimic potentiates TRAIL- and TNFalpha-mediated cell death. Science 305, 1471–1474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marage, J.-P., and Mori, Y. (2013). Sonar and Underwater Acoustics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Siegrist, R. L., Crimi, M., and Simpkin, T. J. eds. (2011). In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cimmino, A., Casali, F., and Mambretti, C. (2009). “Weird Project: E-Health Service Improvement Using WiMAX,” in Electronic Healthcare: First International Conference, eHealth 2008, London, UK, September 8-9, 2008. Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering., ed. D. Weerasinghe (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 38–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Astronaut Captures Spectacular Image Of Planetary Alignment From Space. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stuehling, A. L. (2017). “We Speak ‘Hola’ In School”: A Case Study of Global Education in a Partial-Immersion Spanish Preschool.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, R. (2017). During Rikers Upheaval, the ‘Prettiest Village in Maine’ Beckoned. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hawley, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Francesconi and Lehner, 2014; Hawley, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Francesconi and Lehner, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles