How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G. (2002). Antihydrogen: holding up a mirror to physics’ world view. Nature 420, 731.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, C. M., and Beard, B. L. (2005). Geochemistry. Biogeochemical cycling of iron isotopes. Science 309, 1025–1027.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, L. Y., Luo, X., and Wang, X. (2001). Endonuclease G is an apoptotic DNase when released from mitochondria. Nature 412, 95–99.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Knittel, J., Swaim, J. D., McAuslan, D. L., Brawley, G. A., and Bowen, W. P. (2013). Back-scatter based whispering gallery mode sensing. Sci. Rep. 3, 2974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mcphee, J. E. (2014). Mastering Strategic Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cuntz, H., Remme, M. W. H., and Torben-Nielsen, B. eds. (2014). The Computing Dendrite: From Structure to Function. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jia, K., and Levine, B. (2010). “Autophagy and Longevity: Lessons from C. elegans,” in Protein Metabolism and Homeostasis in Aging Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology., ed. N. Tavernarakis (Boston, MA: Springer US), 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). One Hundred Years On: The Science Of The Somme. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). Education and Workforce Data: Challenges in Matching Student and Worker Information Raise Concerns about Longitudinal Data Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzaga Reed, R. R. (2017). The Impact of a Community-Based College Access Program at a Midwestern Institution.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017). An American Teenager Who Lives for Big Moments Produces One. New York Times, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2002; Johnson and Beard, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Beard, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Knittel et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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