How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling, G. (2000). ASTRONOMY: Watch This Space! Science 289, 238b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sugarman, J., and Siegel, A. W. (2008). Research ethics. When embryonic stem cell lines fail to meet consent standards. Science 322, 379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gorb, E. V., Purtov, J., and Gorb, S. N. (2014). Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers. Sci. Rep. 4, 5154.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Charlson, R. J., Seinfeld, J. H., Nenes, A., Kulmala, M., Laaksonen, A., and Facchini, M. C. (2001). Atmospheric science. Reshaping the theory of cloud formation. Science 292, 2025–2026.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane, S. (2013). Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Dao. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Musani, M. H. (2015). Clinical Pearls in Diagnostic Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography. , eds. E. J. Feldmann and M. Poon Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Monahan, T. S. (2012). “Microvascular Changes in the Diabetic Foot,” in Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management, eds. G. V. Shrikhande and J. F. McKinsey (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press), 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). Gigantic Shield To Be Placed Over Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Indoor Pollution: Status of Federal Research Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison, C. (2009). Who am I? Identity formation of children in foster care: A curriculum development.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006). In Suffolk, a Plan to Keep Emergency Volunteers. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schilling, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schilling, 2000; Sugarman and Siegel, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sugarman and Siegel, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Charlson et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles