How to format your references using the Water Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2005. Come together. Nature 434, 252–253.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karl, T.R., Trenberth, K.E., 2003. Modern global climate change. Science 302, 1719–1723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ismail-Zadeh, A., Honda, S., Tsepelev, I., 2013. Linking mantle upwelling with the lithosphere descent [corrected] and the Japan Sea evolution: a hypothesis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1137.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Masumoto, H., Muramatsu, S., Kamimura, Y., Araki, H., 2002. S-Cdk-dependent phosphorylation of Sld2 essential for chromosomal DNA replication in budding yeast. Nature 415, 651–655.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bower, J.A., 2013. Statistical Methods for Food Science. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Alpay, D., Gohberg, I. (Eds.), 2006. Interpolation, Schur Functions and Moment Problems, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, Linear Operators and Linear Systems. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Fancy, D., 2015. Sustainability, Immanence and the Monstrous in Caryl Hurchill’s the Skriker, in: Mitchell, R.C., Moore, S.A. (Eds.), Planetary Praxis & Pedagogy: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Sustainability. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 95–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Masked Hypertension Is A Silent Killer – We Must Do More To Detect It [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Higher Education: Information on Incentive Compensation Violations Substantiated by the U.S. Department of Education (No. GAO-10-370R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cope, J.A., 2015. Coastal squeeze of vegetation zones in the Los Cerritos Wetlands: The effect of sea level rise (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M., 2015. Feast of Championships. New York Times LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Karl and Trenberth, 2003; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karl and Trenberth, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Masumoto et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Research
AbbreviationWater Res.
ISSN (print)0043-1354
ScopeEcological Modelling
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

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