How to format your references using the Water Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, C., 2010. Joining forces. Nature 466, S9-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zimbelman, J.R., Scheidt, S.P., 2012. Hesperian age for western Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars. Science 336, 1683.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mohr, J.T., Krout, M.R., Stoltz, B.M., 2008. Natural products as inspiration for the development of asymmetric catalysis. Nature 455, 323–332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Inoue, K., Kohda, T., Sugimoto, M., Sado, T., Ogonuki, N., Matoba, S., Shiura, H., Ikeda, R., Mochida, K., Fujii, T., Sawai, K., Otte, A.P., Tian, X.C., Yang, X., Ishino, F., Abe, K., Ogura, A., 2010. Impeding Xist expression from the active X chromosome improves mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer. Science 330, 496–499.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geman, H., 2015. Agricultural Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Wendt, K. (Ed.), 2015. Responsible Investment Banking: Risk Management Frameworks, Sustainable Financial Innovation and Softlaw Standards, CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Amro, S.A., Chiclana, F., Elizondo, D.A., 2012. Application of Fuzzy Logic in Computer Security and Forensics, in: Elizondo, David A., Solanas, A., Martinez-Balleste, A. (Eds.), Computational Intelligence for Privacy and Security, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. How To Run A Marathon (Hint: It’s All In The Mind) [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Implementation of Section 1903(g) of the Social Security Act by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (No. MWD-76-89). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, A.H., 2012. William Harold Fletcher (b. 1923): His life and career in music education at Oklahoma Christian University, 1950–2012 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M.M., 2011. Michigan: Koran-Burning Pastor Draws a Boisterous Crowd. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willyard, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Willyard, 2010; Zimbelman and Scheidt, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zimbelman and Scheidt, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Inoue et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Research
AbbreviationWater Res.
ISSN (print)0043-1354
ScopeEcological Modelling
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

Other styles