How to format your references using the Water Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Borovsky, J.E., 2014. Geophysics. Feedback of the magnetosphere. Science 343, 1086–1087.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ringler, P., Schulz, G.E., 2003. Self-assembly of proteins into designed networks. Science 302, 106–109.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nussbaumer, A.D., Fisher, C.R., Bright, M., 2006. Horizontal endosymbiont transmission in hydrothermal vent tubeworms. Nature 441, 345–348.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maeda, K., Henbest, K.B., Cintolesi, F., Kuprov, I., Rodgers, C.T., Liddell, P.A., Gust, D., Timmel, C.R., Hore, P.J., 2008. Chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception. Nature 453, 387–390.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bliesner, D.M., 2006. Establishing a CGMP Laboratory Audit System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hossain, J., Mahmud, A. (Eds.), 2014. Renewable Energy Integration: Challenges and Solutions, Green Energy and Technology. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Berg, S., Börner, B.-I., Rasch, H., Müller-Brand, J., Bongartz, G., 2007. Hybrid Imaging with SPECT/CT — Presentation of 5 Cases, in: Buzug, T.M., Holz, D., Bongartz, J., Kohl-Bareis, M., Hartmann, U., Weber, S. (Eds.), Advances in Medical Engineering, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. LG Display Unveils Incredible New Flexible Televisions [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Legality of a Proposal for Transfer of Child Abuse and Neglect Research and Development Funds (No. B-157356). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schey, K.A., 2010. A paradigm for historical and biographical research in support of living history programming at Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2015. Puerto Rico Unveils Painful Plan for Islanders, and Bond Holders. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Borovsky, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Borovsky, 2014; Ringler and Schulz, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ringler and Schulz, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Maeda et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Research
AbbreviationWater Res.
ISSN (print)0043-1354
ScopeEcological Modelling
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

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