How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May M (2013) The spine. Nature 503:S1
A journal article with 2 authors
Matouschek A, Finley D (2012) Cell biology. An ancient portal to proteolysis. Science 337:813–814
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy I, Johnston DT, Schrag DP (2010) Explaining the structure of the Archean mass-independent sulfur isotope record. Science 329:204–207
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Okamoto H, Eguchi R, Hamao S, et al (2014) An extended phenacene-type molecule, [8]phenacene: synthesis and transistor application. Sci Rep 4:5330

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bell M (2016) Incremental Software Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Breslin JG, Burg TN, Kim H-G, et al (eds) (2010) Recent Trends and Developments in Social Software: International Conferences on Social Software, BlogTalk 2008, Cork, Ireland, March 3-4, 2008, and BlogTalk 2009, Jeju Island, South Korea, September 15-16, 2009. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Rao RV, Savsani VJ (2012) Applications of Hybrid Optimization Algorithms to the Unconstrained and Constrained Problems. In: Savsani VJ (ed) Mechanical Design Optimization Using Advanced Optimization Techniques. Springer, London, pp 123–131

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) View the Known Universe. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Desert Shield and Desert Storm Reports and Testimonies: 1991-93. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marquez HH (2017) Social Capital, Academics, and Sense of Belonging among High School Foster Youth. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Again Faces Draft Issue As He Returns to New Hampshire. New York Times 120

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Matouschek and Finley 2012; May 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matouschek and Finley 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Okamoto et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles