How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C (2013) Halt the avalanche of performance metrics. Nature 500:255
A journal article with 2 authors
Sung S, Amasino RM (2004) Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3. Nature 427:159–164
A journal article with 3 authors
Song T-RA, Helmberger DV, Grand SP (2004) Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States. Nature 427:530–533
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schmid S, Kurek M, Adolphsen JQ, Boisen A (2013) Real-time single airborne nanoparticle detection with nanomechanical resonant filter-fiber. Sci Rep 3:1288

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox C (2012) An Introduction to LTE. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Syrigos KN, Nutting CM, Roussos C (eds) (2006) Tumors of the Chest: Biology, Diagnosis and Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Fritzsche B, Kirstein B, Mädler C (2012) On a Special Parametrization of Matricial α-Stieltjes One-sided Non-negative Definite Sequences. In: Alpay D, Kirstein B (eds) Interpolation, Schur Functions and Moment Problems II. Springer, Basel, pp 211–250

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Messenger Spacecraft Detects Ancient Magnetic Field On Mercury. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baciu AB (2010) Biopolitics and the influenza pandemics of 1918 and 2009 in the United States: Power, immunity, and the law. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Relatives of Flight 93 Victims Run to Keep Memories Alive. New York Times B16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sung and Amasino 2004; Macilwain 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sung and Amasino 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmid et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles