How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodwin I (2001) Bush appoints venture capitalist as technology adviser. Nature 410:617
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu J, Broecker WS (2010) Comment on “Deep-sea temperature and ice volume changes across the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transitions.” Science 328:1480; author reply 1480
A journal article with 3 authors
Flower TP, Gribble M, Ridley AR (2014) Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird. Science 344:513–516
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Araki J, Nishizawa Y, Nakamura T, et al (2014) Anorectal autotransplantation in a canine model: the first successful report in the short term with the non-laparotomy approach. Sci Rep 4:6312

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohos FÁ (2017) Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wieseman KC, Weinburgh MH (eds) (2009) Women’s Experiences in Leadership in K-16 Science Education Communities: Becoming and Being. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Dodson J (2012) Climate Change Through Time. In: Talent JA (ed) Earth and Life: Global Biodiversity, Extinction Intervals and Biogeographic Perturbations Through Time. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 51–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Ceres’ Mystery Spots Are Even Stranger Than We Thought. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Small Business Administration: Better Planning and Controls Needed for Information Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nersessian N (2012) Modified gravity with scale invariance and implications. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) Listen In, With the Bird Man of Classical. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodwin 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Goodwin 2001; Yu and Broecker 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yu and Broecker 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Araki et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles