How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich PB (2009) Elevated CO2 reduces losses of plant diversity caused by nitrogen deposition. Science 326:1399–1402
A journal article with 2 authors
Korf H-W, Wicht H (2004) The public cadaver. Nature 428:805
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson SC, Rabinovitch PS, Kaeberlein M (2013) mTOR is a key modulator of ageing and age-related disease. Nature 493:338–345
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang S, Xie C, Wang Q, Liu Z (2014) Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson’s rats. Sci Rep 4:6811

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Natsuno T (2005) i-Mode Strategy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Billari FC, Fent T, Prskawetz A, Scheffran J (eds) (2006) Agent-Based Computational Modelling: Applications in Demography, Social, Economic and Environmental Sciences. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hafner JE (2011) Hermann Grassmann’s theory of religion and faith. In: Petsche H-J, Lewis AC, Liesen J, Russ S (eds) From Past to Future: Graßmann’s Work in Context: Graßmann Bicentennial Conference, September 2009. Springer, Basel, pp 37–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Enzyme Modification Means Roundworms Live Twice As Long. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/roundworms-live-twice-long-enzyme-modification/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Taxpayer Information: Options Exist to Enable Data Sharing Between IRS and USCIS but Each Presents Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desgens-Martin V (2014) High prevalence of carcinoma in California sea lions Zalophus californianus: Evidence of a xenobiotic-induced carcinogenic cascade? Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman R (2017) In Siege on Democracy, Polish Leaders Now Target Judicial System. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reich 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Korf and Wicht 2004; Reich 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Korf and Wicht 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geology
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Architecture

Other styles