How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C (2015) Economic divide taking toll on European science. Nature 517:123
A journal article with 2 authors
Vermot J, Pourquié O (2005) Retinoic acid coordinates somitogenesis and left-right patterning in vertebrate embryos. Nature 435:215–220
A journal article with 3 authors
Kilner RM, Madden JR, Hauber ME (2004) Brood parasitic cowbird nestlings use host young to procure resources. Science 305:877–879
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liljegren SJ, Ditta GS, Eshed Y, et al (2000) SHATTERPROOF MADS-box genes control seed dispersal in Arabidopsis. Nature 404:766–770

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen RN (2010) Practical Relativity. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Yang L (2014) Spatio-Temporal Data Analytics for Wind Energy Integration. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Almestad K (2016) The Notion of ‘Opting Out.’ In: Baudenbacher C (ed) The Handbook of EEA Law. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Fossils From Unknown Species Of Human Discovered. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/fossil-teeth-dont-belong-any-extinct-human-species-known/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) School Lunch Program: Buy American Procedures at Schools With Cash or Credit in Lieu of Food. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Colchero Dorado R (2008) Recovering memory in Jordi Soler’s “Los rojos de ultramar.” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2003) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Mandatory Military Service. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Vermot and Pourquié 2005; Macilwain 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vermot and Pourquié 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Liljegren et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geology
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Architecture

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