How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boden M (2007) Obituary: Donald Michie (1923-2007). Nature 448:765
A journal article with 2 authors
Kedar S, Webb FH (2005) Ocean science. The ocean’s seismic hum. Science 307:682–683
A journal article with 3 authors
Klein Y, Efrati E, Sharon E (2007) Shaping of elastic sheets by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics. Science 315:1116–1120
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Clarkson JR, Baquero E, Shubert VA, et al (2005) Laser-initiated shuttling of a water molecule between H-bonding sites. Science 307:1443–1446

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Mahmoud MS, Guerber C, Larrieu N, et al (2014) Aeronautical Air-Ground Data Link Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Allan DS, Strunk D (eds) (2012) Regenerative Therapy Using Blood-Derived Stem Cells. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
A chapter in an edited book
Lapidus ML, van Frankenhuijsen M (2013) Generalized Fractal Strings Viewed as Measures. In: van Frankenhuijsen M (ed) Fractal Geometry, Complex Dimensions and Zeta Functions: Geometry and Spectra of Fractal Strings. Springer, New York, NY, pp 119–135

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Curious Material Can Form A Completely New Type Of Light. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Contracts To Provide Support for the Food Service Inspection Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez F (2010) Grant proposal: Providing effective screening, training, and supervision for an at-risk youth mentoring program. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M (2017) ‘Lesser God’ Is Headed For a Broadway Revival. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boden 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kedar and Webb 2005; Boden 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kedar and Webb 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Clarkson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles