How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lubensky TC (2000) LIQUID CRYSTALS: New Banana Phases. Science 288:2146–2147
A journal article with 2 authors
Minkov M, Savona V (2014) Automated optimization of photonic crystal slab cavities. Sci Rep 4:5124
A journal article with 3 authors
Yabuta NH, Sawatari A, Callaway EM (2001) Two functional channels from primary visual cortex to dorsal visual cortical areas. Science 292:297–300
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dixon TH, Amelung F, Ferretti A, et al (2006) Space geodesy: subsidence and flooding in New Orleans. Nature 441:587–588

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg MA, Segelnick SL, Insler JS, Kramer S (2015) The Dentist’s Quick Guide to Medical Conditions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
L’Abate L (2010) Relational Competence Theory: Research and Mental Health Applications. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Puryear WB, Gummuluru S (2013) Role of Glycosphingolipids in Dendritic Cell-Mediated HIV-1 Trans-infection. In: Wu L, Schwartz O (eds) HIV Interactions with Dendritic Cells: Infection and Immunity. Springer, New York, NY, pp 131–153

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) What Would Happen If Humans Suddenly Disappeared From The Planet? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Aviation Safety: Is Re-regulation Needed To Improve Aviation Safety. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herman RL (2008) Servant leadership: A model for organizations desiring a workplace spirituality culture. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2006) QUICK BITE/Kenilworth; So Greek, So Good. New York Times 14NJ12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lubensky 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lubensky 2000; Minkov and Savona 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Minkov and Savona 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dixon et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles