How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oullier O (2013) Behavioural insights are vital to policy-making. Nature 501:463
A journal article with 2 authors
Ciesla FJ, Sandford SA (2012) Organic synthesis via irradiation and warming of ice grains in the solar nebula. Science 336:452–454
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisz C, Glowatzki E, Fuchs P (2009) The postsynaptic function of type II cochlear afferents. Nature 461:1126–1129
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Reddy KC, Andersen EC, Kruglyak L, Kim DH (2009) A polymorphism in npr-1 is a behavioral determinant of pathogen susceptibility in C. elegans. Science 323:382–384

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kricheldorf HR (2012) Menschen und ihre Materialien. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Avram NM, Brik MG (eds) (2013) Optical Properties of 3d-Ions in Crystals: Spectroscopy and Crystal Field Analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Härdle WK, Hlávka Z (2015) Theory of the Multinormal. In: Hlávka Z (ed) Multivariate Statistics: Exercises and Solutions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 71–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Explainer: What Is Gene Doping – And Will Any Athletes At Rio 2016 Have Tried It? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Internet Management: Limited Progress on Privatization Project Makes Outcome Uncertain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmes K (2008) Ethical practice online: An exploration of provider liability risk among practitioners in the emerging field of online therapy. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S (2016) In and Out of the Spotlight, a Mother-Daughter Act for the Ages. New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oullier 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ciesla and Sandford 2012; Oullier 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ciesla and Sandford 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Reddy et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles