How to format your references using the Geotechnical and Geological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cantley LC (2001) Transcription. Translocating tubby. Science 292:2019–2021
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim-Muller JY, Accili D (2011) Cell biology. Selective insulin sensitizers. Science 331:1529–1531
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharon E, Cohen G, Fineberg J (2001) Propagating solitary waves along a rapidly moving crack front. Nature 410:68–71
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bricelj VM, Connell L, Konoki K, et al (2005) Sodium channel mutation leading to saxitoxin resistance in clams increases risk of PSP. Nature 434:763–767

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King M (2016) Process Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Allen R (2006) Windows Server 2003 Networking Recipes. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
O’Hern DM, Nozaki Y (2014) Forest Secondary School. In: Nozaki Y (ed) Natural Science Education, Indigenous Knowledge, and Sustainable Development in Rural and Urban Schools in Kenya: Toward Critical Postcolonial Curriculum Policies and Practices. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 63–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Self-Propelled Micro-Motors Tested In A Living Animal For The First Time. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Emergency Communications: Improved Procurement of Land Mobile Radios Could Enhance Interoperability and Cut Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez TM (2008) A quasi-experimental study of the relationship between school structure and student outcomes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goff PA, Buchanan KS (2017) The Wrong Role for The Police. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cantley 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cantley 2001; Kim-Muller and Accili 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim-Muller and Accili 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bricelj et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotechnical and Geological Engineering
AbbreviationGeotech. Geol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0960-3182
ISSN (online)1573-1529
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles