How to format your references using the Educational Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stubbe, J. (2011). Biochemistry. The two faces of SAM. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6029), 544–545.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsieh, H. H., & Jewitt, D. (2006). A population of comets in the main asteroid belt. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5773), 561–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jouvenet, N., Bieniasz, P. D., & Simon, S. M. (2008). Imaging the biogenesis of individual HIV-1 virions in live cells. Nature, 454(7201), 236–240.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Saleh, M.-C., Tassetto, M., van Rij, R. P., Goic, B., Gausson, V., Berry, B., Jacquier, C., Antoniewski, C., & Andino, R. (2009). Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread. Nature, 458(7236), 346–350.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homès, B. (2012). Fundamentals of Software Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fliss, D. M. (2016). Atlas of Surgical Approaches to Paranasal Sinuses and the Skull Base (Z. Gil, Ed.; 1st ed. 2016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Finn, A., & Scheding, S. (2010). Force-Integration of UVS. In S. Scheding (Ed.), Developments and Challenges for Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles: A Compendium (pp. 105–154). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Researcher.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, May 27). Worried About Shark Attacks Or Terrorism? Here’s How To Think About The Real Risk Of Rare Events. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). GAO’s Views on the Default Task Force’s Recommendations for Reducing Default Costs in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (T-HRD-88-7). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mai, J. (2017). College Application Behaviors: Factors Impacting the College Choices of High School Seniors [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., & Fisher, I. (2017, May 23). President Puts Saudis at Core Of Peace Effort. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stubbe, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006; Stubbe, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Jouvenet et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Saleh et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Researcher
AbbreviationEduc. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-189X
ISSN (online)1935-102X

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