How to format your references using the Educational Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aftergood, S. (2000). ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Polygraph Testing and the DOE National Laboratories. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5493), 939–940.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobias, S. M., & Cattaneo, F. (2013). Shear-driven dynamo waves at high magnetic Reynolds number. Nature, 497(7450), 463–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, F., Tillberg, P. W., & Boyden, E. S. (2015). Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6221), 543–548.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ricci-Vitiani, L., Lombardi, D. G., Pilozzi, E., Biffoni, M., Todaro, M., Peschle, C., & De Maria, R. (2007). Identification and expansion of human colon-cancer-initiating cells. Nature, 445(7123), 111–115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham, C. (2014). Markov Chains: Analytic and Monte Carlo Computations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vázquez, E. (Ed.). (2013). Progress of Recycling in the Built Environment: Final report of the RILEM Technical Committee 217-PRE (Vol. 8). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jon, C. (2009). Polysomnography in Children. In K. D. Pereira & R. B. Mitchell (Eds.), Pediatric Otolaryngology for the Clinician (pp. 35–47). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Researcher.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, July 22). Black Holes May Collapse Into Their Exact Opposites: White Holes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Intellectual Property: State Immunity in Infringement Actions (GAO-01-811). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fan, H.-T. (2012). Design of delta operator based decision feedback equalizer for high-speed backplane data communication [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, September 21). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Population Still Shrinking. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aftergood, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Aftergood, 2000; Tobias & Cattaneo, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tobias & Cattaneo, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Chen et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ricci-Vitiani et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Researcher
AbbreviationEduc. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-189X
ISSN (online)1935-102X

Other styles