How to format your references using the Educational Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, J. (2000). Nice work--but is it science? Nature, 408(6810), 293.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver, B. A. A., & Cleveland, D. W. (2007). Comment on “A centrosome-independent role for gamma-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5827), 982; author reply 982.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raebiger, H., Lany, S., & Zunger, A. (2008). Charge self-regulation upon changing the oxidation state of transition metals in insulators. Nature, 453(7196), 763–766.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fan, C., Jin, Y., Li, J., & Dong, X. (2014). A novel stable binary BeB₂ phase [corrected]. Scientific Reports, 4, 6993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gonzalez, R., Qi, F., & Huang, B. (2016). Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Eastwood, M., & Miller, W. (Eds.). (2008). Symmetries and Overdetermined Systems of Partial Differential Equations (Vol. 144). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Santos, N., Veiga, L., & Ferreira, P. (2007). Vector-Field Consistency for Ad-Hoc Gaming. In R. Cerqueira & R. H. Campbell (Eds.), Middleware 2007: ACM/IFIP/USENIX 8th International Middleware Conference, Newport Beach, CA, USA, November 26-30, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 80–100). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Researcher.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, October 30). New Evidence Suggests Tyrannosaurus Rex Was A Cannibal. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Public Transit: Length of Development Process, Cost Estimates, and Ridership Forecasts for Capital-Investment Grant Projects (GAO-14-472). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lake, A. D. (2013). Hepatic stress response mechanisms in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2015, February 1). A Master of Metallurgy. New York Times, WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smith, 2000; Weaver & Cleveland, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weaver & Cleveland, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Raebiger et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Researcher
AbbreviationEduc. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-189X
ISSN (online)1935-102X

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