How to format your references using the Educational Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keil, F. C. (2011). Psychology. Science starts early. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6020), 1022–1023.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trumbore, S. E., & Czimczik, C. I. (2008). Geology. An uncertain future for soil carbon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5895), 1455–1456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Avitabile, C., D’Andrea, L. D., & Romanelli, A. (2014). Circular Dichroism studies on the interactions of antimicrobial peptides with bacterial cells. Scientific Reports, 4, 4293.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Whitfield, C. W., Behura, S. K., Berlocher, S. H., Clark, A. G., Johnston, J. S., Sheppard, W. S., Smith, D. R., Suarez, A. V., Weaver, D., & Tsutsui, N. D. (2006). Thrice out of Africa: ancient and recent expansions of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5799), 642–645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leach, M., Drummond, M., & Doig, A. (2013). Practical Flow Cytometry in Haematology Diagnosis. John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Murgante, B., Gervasi, O., Iglesias, A., Taniar, D., & Apduhan, B. O. (Eds.). (2011). Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011: International Conference, Santander, Spain, June 20-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 6783). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Becerra, H. M., & Sagüés, C. (2014). Dynamic Pose-Estimation for Visual Control. In C. Sagüés (Ed.), Visual Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots: Unifying Vision and Control in Generic Approaches (pp. 69–97). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Researcher.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 29). New Asteroid Is Orbiting Jupiter And The Sun The Wrong Way Around. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Wider Use of Better Computer Software Technology Can Improve Management Control and Reduce Costs (FGMSD-80-38). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sokoya, K. (2014). A Historical Analysis of the Contributions of the Black Power Movement to Higher Education: 1960 – 1980 [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson, J. (2017, March 6). University Presses. New York Times, BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keil, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Keil, 2011; Trumbore & Czimczik, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trumbore & Czimczik, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Avitabile et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Whitfield et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Researcher
AbbreviationEduc. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-189X
ISSN (online)1935-102X

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