How to format your references using the Educational Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McMillan, P. F. (2005). Geochemistry. A stranger in paradise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5751), 1125–1126.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Z., & Zhao, Y. (2006). MATERIALS SCIENCE: High-Pressure Microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5777), 1149–1150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lim, M., Metzler, R., & Bar-Yam, Y. (2007). Global pattern formation and ethnic/cultural violence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5844), 1540–1544.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cui, H., Levesque, M. P., Vernoux, T., Jung, J. W., Paquette, A. J., Gallagher, K. L., … Benfey, P. N. (2007). An evolutionarily conserved mechanism delimiting SHR movement defines a single layer of endodermis in plants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5823), 421–425.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeod, L. E. (2016). Leading with Noble Purpose. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hartlep, N. D., & Hensley, B. O. (Eds.). (2015). Critical Storytelling in Uncritical Times: Stories Disclosed in a Cultural Foundations of Education Course. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Bahram, S., Chakraborty, A., Ravindran, S., & St. Amant, R. (2013). Intelligent Interaction in Accessible Applications. In P. Biswas, C. Duarte, P. Langdon, L. Almeida, & C. Jung (Eds.), A Multimodal End-2-End Approach to Accessible Computing (pp. 93–117). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Researcher.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 26). Blocking Inflammation For Too Long Could Be Bad For Your Heart. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Intellectual Property: Key Processes for Managing Patent Automation Strategy Need Stengthening (No. GAO-05-336). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prasad, H. (2017). Removing a Thorn with a Thorn: Evaluating India’s Use of Militias in Counterinsurgency (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., & Baker, A. L. (2016, October 12). Commissioner Vows Tighter Bond With the Public. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McMillan, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (McMillan, 2005; Wang & Zhao, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Zhao, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Lim, Metzler, & Bar-Yam, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cui et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Researcher
AbbreviationEduc. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-189X
ISSN (online)1935-102X

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