How to format your references using the Educational Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bird, A. (2007). Perceptions of epigenetics. Nature, 447(7143), 396–398.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding, L., & Morrison, S. J. (2013). Haematopoietic stem cells and early lymphoid progenitors occupy distinct bone marrow niches. Nature, 495(7440), 231–235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, L., Yang, N., & Li, B. (2013). Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale 3D phononic crystal. Scientific Reports, 3, 1143.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Peter, B. J., Kent, H. M., Mills, I. G., Vallis, Y., Butler, P. J. G., Evans, P. R., & McMahon, H. T. (2004). BAR domains as sensors of membrane curvature: the amphiphysin BAR structure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5657), 495–499.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Broekaert, J. A. C. (2005). Analytical Atomic Spectrometry with Flames and Plasmas. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Železný, F., & Lavrač, N. (Eds.). (2008). Inductive Logic Programming: 18th International Conference, ILP 2008 Prague, Czech Republic, September 10-12, 2008 Proceedings (Vol. 5194). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Paegelow, M., Camacho, M. T. O., Ferraty, F., Ferré, L., Sarda, P., & Villa, N. (2008). Prospective modelling of environmental dynamics: A methodological comparison applied to mountain land cover changes. In M. Paegelow & M. T. C. Olmedo (Eds.), Modelling Environmental Dynamics: Advances in Geomatic Solutions (pp. 141–167). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Researcher.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 16). The 25 Highest-Paying Jobs In America In 2017. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Information Technology: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Needs to Strengthen Its Strategic Planning and Oversight to Modernize Legacy Systems (GAO-17-488). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koblick, D. C. (2012). Parallel high-precision orbit propagation using the modified Picard-Chebyshev method [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2003, October 12). Muscovites Replace “This Old House” With “Changing Rooms.” New York Times, 92.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bird, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bird, 2007; Ding & Morrison, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ding & Morrison, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Yang et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Peter et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Researcher
AbbreviationEduc. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-189X
ISSN (online)1935-102X

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