How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, D.: Nuts and bolts, Nature, 426, 104, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fuyuno, I. and Cyranoski, D.: Cash for papers: putting a premium on publication, Nature, 441, 792, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kelley, A. M., Michalet, X., and Weiss, S.: Chemical physics. Single-molecule spectroscopy comes of age, Science, 292, 1671–1672, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Ji, H., Burin, M., Schartman, E., and Goodman, J.: Hydrodynamic turbulence cannot transport angular momentum effectively in astrophysical disks, Nature, 444, 343–346, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mallios, W. S.: Forecasting in Financial and Sports Gambling Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
Cimino, G. and Gavagnin, M. (Eds.): Molluscs: From Chemo-ecological Study to Biotechnological Application, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XIX, 387 p pp., 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Pan, M., Li, M., Li, P., and Fang, Y.: Economic-Robust Session Based Spectrum Trading, in: Spectrum Trading in Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks, edited by: Li, M., Li, P., and Fang, Y., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 47–59, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions.

Blog post
Octomom Brooded Her Eggs for Record-Breaking Four-and-a-Half Years:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Core Competencies in Financial Management for Information Technology Personnel Implementing Financial Systems in the Federal Government, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rossi, G.: Anesthesiology, geriatric surgery, and the risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Maheshwari, S. and Herrman, J.: Publishers Are Rethinking Those ‘Around the Web’ Ads, New York Times, 30th October, B1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Koen, 2003; Fuyuno and Cyranoski, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fuyuno and Cyranoski, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Ji et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development Discussions
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1991-962X

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