How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, K.: Microbiome: the bacterial tightrope, Nature, 516(7529), S14-6, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doak, D. F. and Morris, W. F.: Demographic compensation and tipping points in climate-induced range shifts, Nature, 467(7318), 959–962, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaib, N. A., Raymond, S. N. and Duncan, M.: Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars, Nature, 493(7432), 381–384, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Shen, B., Dong, L., Xiao, S. and Kowalewski, M.: The Avalon explosion: evolution of Ediacara morphospace, Science, 319(5859), 81–84, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lafontaine, E. and Comet, M.: Nanothermites, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2016.
An edited book
Farooq, M. and Siddique, K. H. M., Eds.: Conservation Agriculture, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
(Tomaszewska), A. L.: Time Compensation in Perceptual Experiments, in Computer Vision and Graphics: International Conference, ICCVG 2014, Warsaw, Poland, September 15-17, 2014. Proceedings, edited by L. J. Chmielewski, R. Kozera, B.-S. Shin, and K. Wojciechowski, pp. 33–40, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Russian Company Announces It Is Planning To Build A Lunar Base, IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Spectrum Management: NTIA Planning and Processes Need Strengthening to Promote the Efficient Use of Spectrum by Federal Agencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batistick, S. A.: Reclaiming One’s Gold: Imagining the Inner Child Through the Art of Therapeutic Fairy Tale Writing, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA., 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W.: Life on the Precipice in Puerto Rico, New York Times, 6th August, BU1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bourzac, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bourzac, 2014; Doak and Morris, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doak and Morris, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Shen et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development Discussions
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1991-962X

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