How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cooper, A. I.: Materials chemistry: cooperative carbon capture, Nature, 519, 294–295, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krupovic, M. and Koonin, E. V.: Evolution of eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses of the Bidnaviridae family from genes of four other groups of widely different viruses, Sci. Rep., 4, 5347, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dean, R., Bonsall, M. B., and Pizzari, T.: Evolution. Aging and sexual conflict, Science, 316, 383–384, 2007.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Mallamace, F., Corsaro, C., Leone, N., Villari, V., Micali, N., and Chen, S.-H.: On the ergodicity of supercooled molecular glass-forming liquids at the dynamical arrest: the o-terphenyl case, Sci. Rep., 4, 3747, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smeets, R., der Sluis, L. van, Kapetanović, M., Peelo, D. F., and Janssen, A.: Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
Manin, Y. I.: Introduction to Modern Number Theory: Fundamental Problems, Ideas and Theories, 2nd ed., edited by: Panchishkin, A. A., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVI, 514 p pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Popper, A. N., Hawkins, A. D., Fay, R. R., Mann, D. A., Bartol, S., Carlson, T. J., Coombs, S., Ellison, W. T., Gentry, R. L., Halvorsen, M. B., Løkkeborg, S., Rogers, P. H., Southall, B. L., Zeddies, D. G., and Tavolga, W. N.: Effects of Sound Exposure, in: ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and registered with ANSI, edited by: Hawkins, A. D., Fay, R. R., Mann, D. A., Bartol, S., Carlson, T. J., Coombs, S., Ellison, W. T., Gentry, R. L., Halvorsen, M. B., Løkkeborg, S., Rogers, P. H., Southall, B. L., Zeddies, D. G., and Tavolga, W. N., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 17–21, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions.

Blog post
Could This Be The Solution To The Mystery Of The “Alien Megastructure” Star?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: National Airspace System Modernization: Observations on Potential Funding Options for FAA and the Next Generation Airspace System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Revzin, N. T.: From selling rags to wearing riches: German Jews’ economic progress in the first half of the nineteenth century, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barker, K., Schwirtz, M., and Foderaro, L. W.: 2 Lives Collide in Fatal Night Inside Shelter, New York Times, 30th January, A1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cooper, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cooper, 2015; Krupovic and Koonin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krupovic and Koonin, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Mallamace et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development Discussions
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1991-962X

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