How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek, F.: Journal club. A theoretical physicist examines exotic particles lurking in new materials, Nature, 458, 129, 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman, M. P. and Watkins, N. W.: Auroral and space physics. The heavens in a pile of sand, Science, 298, 979–980, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Audouze, K., Brunak, S., and Grandjean, P.: A computational approach to chemical etiologies of diabetes, Sci. Rep., 3, 2712, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Bachtold, A., Hadley, P., Nakanishi, T., and Dekker, C.: Logic circuits with carbon nanotube transistors, Science, 294, 1317–1320, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigrist, J.-F.: Fluid-Structure Interaction, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
Loeb, P. A. and Wolff, M. P. H. (Eds.): Nonstandard Analysis for the Working Mathematician, 2nd ed. 2015., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XV, 481 p pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Emoto, K., Hu, Z., Kakehi, K., Matsuzaki, K., and Takeichi, M.: Generators-of-Generators Library with Optimization Capabilities in Fortress, in: Euro-Par 2010 - Parallel Processing: 16th International Euro-Par Conference, Ischia, Italy, August 31 - September 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, edited by: D’Ambra, P., Guarracino, M., and Talia, D., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 26–37, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions.

Blog post
Chunks Of The Earth’s Upper Mantle Are Falling Off And Causing Earthquakes:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Air Traffic Control: Smaller Terminal Systems’ Capacity Requirements Need to Be Defined, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tovar, L.: Perceived life satisfaction of previously undocumented Latino immigrants, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J.: Up for Anyting: The Common Swift, Ever in the Air, New York Times, 27th October, D2, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilczek, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Wilczek, 2009; Freeman and Watkins, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freeman and Watkins, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Bachtold et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development Discussions
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1991-962X

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