How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sassen, K.: Meteorology: dusty ice clouds over Alaska, Nature, 434(7032), 456, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bieging, K. T. and Attardi, L. D.: Cancer: A piece of the p53 puzzle, Nature, 520(7545), 37–38, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scherer, E., Munker, C. and Mezger, K.: Calibration of the lutetium-hafnium clock, Science, 293(5530), 683–687, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Qi, H. H., Sarkissian, M., Hu, G.-Q., Wang, Z., Bhattacharjee, A., Gordon, D. B., Gonzales, M., Lan, F., Ongusaha, P. P., Huarte, M., Yaghi, N. K., Lim, H., Garcia, B. A., Brizuela, L., Zhao, K., Roberts, T. M. and Shi, Y.: Histone H4K20/H3K9 demethylase PHF8 regulates zebrafish brain and craniofacial development, Nature, 466(7305), 503–507, 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goldberger, A. L. and Goldberger, Z. D.: Becoming a Consummate Clinician, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2012.
An edited book
Dodis, Y. and Nielsen, J. B., Eds.: Theory of Cryptography: 12th Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2015, Warsaw, Poland, March 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmitt, D. and Gollnick, V.: Aircraft Characteristics, in Air Transport System, edited by V. Gollnick, pp. 107–155, Springer, Vienna., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: “Hobbit” more likely had Down Syndrome than a new species, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Developing and Using Questionnaires, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woo, C.: Cross-Cultural Encounter and the Novel: Nation, Identity, and Genre in Nineteenth-Century British Literature, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH., 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B.: Case Study in Chaos: Management Experts Grade a Trump White House, New York Times, 2nd February, B1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sassen, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Bieging and Attardi, 2015; Sassen, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bieging and Attardi, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Qi et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development Discussions
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1991-962X

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