How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, J. A.: Ecology. How the Sahara became dry, Science, 320, 752–753, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feldl, N. and Bilham, R.: Great Himalayan earthquakes and the Tibetan plateau, Nature, 444, 165–170, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mahadevan, A., Thomas, L. N., and Tandon, A.: Comment on “Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms,” Science, 320, 448; author reply 448, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Dodd, A. N., Salathia, N., Hall, A., Kévei, E., Tóth, R., Nagy, F., Hibberd, J. M., Millar, A. J., and Webb, A. A. R.: Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage, Science, 309, 630–633, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corns, T. N.: A History of Seventeenth-Century English Literature, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
Kokhanovsky, A. A. (Ed.): Light Scattering Reviews 3: Light Scattering and Reflection, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXII, 408 p. 250 illus. in color pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Lalanda, P., McCann, J. A., and Diaconescu, A.: Autonomic Computing Architectures, in: Autonomic Computing: Principles, Design and Implementation, edited by: McCann, J. A. and Diaconescu, A., Springer, London, 95–128, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development Discussions.

Blog post
Biotech Firm Wants To Trial Gene Editing In Humans In 2017:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Centralized Subsystem for Paying Officers in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahrenholz, F.: The emergence, growth, and challenges of online learning, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B.: Saudi Says Arrests Target Dissidents Aided Abroad, New York Times, 15th September, A7, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Holmes, 2008; Feldl and Bilham, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feldl and Bilham, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Dodd et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development Discussions
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1991-962X

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