How to format your references using the Early Years citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Years. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuller, Watson. 2003. “Who Said ‘Helix’?” Nature 424 (6951): 876–878.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armatas, Gerasimos S., and Mercouri G. Kanatzidis. 2006. “Hexagonal Mesoporous Germanium.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5788): 817–820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harmon, Jason P., Nancy A. Moran, and Anthony R. Ives. 2009. “Species Response to Environmental Change: Impacts of Food Web Interactions and Evolution.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5919): 1347–1350.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dekker, Job, Karsten Rippe, Martijn Dekker, and Nancy Kleckner. 2002. “Capturing Chromosome Conformation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5558): 1306–1311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon, Alain, and Mhamed Itmi. 2016. New Autonomous Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jain, Lakhmi C., Himansu Sekhar Behera, Jyotsna Kumar Mandal, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra, eds. 2015. Computational Intelligence in Data Mining - Volume 1: Proceedings of the International Conference on CIDM, 20-21 December 2014. Vol. 31. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Gábor, Attila, and Julio R. Banga. 2014. “Improved Parameter Estimation in Kinetic Models: Selection and Tuning of Regularization Methods.” In Computational Methods in Systems Biology: 12th International Conference, CMSB 2014, Manchester, UK, November 17-19, 2014, Proceedings, edited by Pedro Mendes, Joseph O. Dada, and Kieran Smallbone, 45–60. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Years.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Neanderthals May Not Have Been as Inferior as Suggested.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Needed on Electronic Data Exchanges. AIMD-98-124. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, Samantha Ruth. 2009. “Freshman Transition Programs: Effect on Ninth Grade Student Preparedness.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Caitlin. 2016. “Elaborate Measures Try to Tame Turbulence.” New York Times, March 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuller 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fuller 2003; Armatas and Kanatzidis 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armatas and Kanatzidis 2006)
  • Three authors: (Harmon, Moran, and Ives 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dekker et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Years
AbbreviationEarly Years (Stoke-on-Trent)
ISSN (print)0957-5146
ISSN (online)1472-4421
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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