How to format your references using the Early Years citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Years. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duldig, Marc. 2006. “Astronomy. Cosmic Rays Track the Rotation of the Milky Way.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5798): 429–430.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hopkins, Robin, and Mark D. Rausher. 2012. “Pollinator-Mediated Selection on Flower Color Allele Drives Reinforcement.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6072): 1090–1092.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norell, M. A., P. J. Makovicky, and P. J. Currie. 2001. “Palaeontology. The Beaks of Ostrich Dinosaurs.” Nature 412 (6850): 873–874.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ghezraoui, Hind, Catarina Oliveira, Jordan R. Becker, Kirstin Bilham, Daniela Moralli, Consuelo Anzilotti, Roman Fischer, et al. 2018. “53BP1 Cooperation with the REV7-Shieldin Complex Underpins DNA Structure-Specific NHEJ.” Nature 560 (7716): 122–127.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dexter, Arthur L. 2012. Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sheehan, William. 2015. Galactic Encounters: Our Majestic and Evolving Star-System, From the Big Bang to Time’s End. Edited by Christopher J. Conselice. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Guangyi, Tien D. Bui, and Adam Krzyzak. 2010. “Denoising of Three Dimensional Data Cube Using Bivariate Wavelet Shrinking.” In Image Analysis and Recognition: 7th International Conference, ICIAR 2010, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings, Part I, edited by Aurélio Campilho and Mohamed Kamel, 45–51. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Years.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2015. “Drone’s Death Mission Provides Stunning Footage Of Volcano.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares and Service at Buffalo, New York. T-RCED-99-286. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson, Michael. 2013. “Respite Efficacy for Parents of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Ethnographic Perspective.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben. 2016. “The Aerial War on Yemen’s Economy.” New York Times, November 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duldig 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Duldig 2006; Hopkins and Rausher 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hopkins and Rausher 2012)
  • Three authors: (Norell, Makovicky, and Currie 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ghezraoui et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Years
AbbreviationEarly Years (Stoke-on-Trent)
ISSN (print)0957-5146
ISSN (online)1472-4421
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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