How to format your references using the Early Years citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Years. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alerstam, Thomas. 2006. “Conflicting Evidence about Long-Distance Animal Navigation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5788): 791–794.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spanò, Stefania, and Jorge E. Galán. 2012. “A Rab32-Dependent Pathway Contributes to Salmonella Typhi Host Restriction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338 (6109): 960–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behringer, Donald C., Mark J. Butler, and Jeffrey D. Shields. 2006. “Ecology: Avoidance of Disease by Social Lobsters.” Nature 441 (7092): 421.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Flavell, Steven W., Christopher W. Cowan, Tae-Kyung Kim, Paul L. Greer, Yingxi Lin, Suzanne Paradis, Eric C. Griffith, Linda S. Hu, Chinfei Chen, and Michael E. Greenberg. 2006. “Activity-Dependent Regulation of MEF2 Transcription Factors Suppresses Excitatory Synapse Number.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5763): 1008–1012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akcoglu, Mustafa A., Paul F. A. Bartha, and Dzung M. Ha. 2009. Analysis in Vector Spaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
King, Ronnel B., and Allan B. I. Bernardo, eds. 2016. The Psychology of Asian Learners: A Festschrift in Honor of David Watkins. 1st ed. 2016. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rotte, Anand, and Madhuri Bhandaru. 2016. “Overview of Immune System.” In Immunotherapy of Melanoma, edited by Madhuri Bhandaru, 113–142. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Years.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce, Harriet. 2017. “Mysterious 15 Meter Sea Creature Found In Indonesia.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Aviation Competition: Issues Related to the Proposed United Airlines-US Airways Merger. GAO-01-212. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ichiyama, Jodi. 2014. “Early Goal-Directed Therapy in Adult Septic Patients.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2015. “Bill Proposed to Give Regulatory Protection to Puerto Rico Mutual Fund Investors.” New York Times, September 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alerstam 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Alerstam 2006; Spanò and Galán 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Spanò and Galán 2012)
  • Three authors: (Behringer, Butler, and Shields 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Flavell et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Years
AbbreviationEarly Years (Stoke-on-Trent)
ISSN (print)0957-5146
ISSN (online)1472-4421
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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