How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willems, J.: Bringing down the barriers, Nature, 422(6931), 470, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, J. and Diamond, J.: China’s environment in a globalizing world, Nature, 435(7046), 1179–1186, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bormashenko, E., Musin, A. and Grynyov, R.: Scaling law governing the roughness of the swash edge line, Sci. Rep., 4, 6243, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Mao, J.-H., Kim, I.-J., Wu, D., Climent, J., Kang, H. C., DelRosario, R. and Balmain, A.: FBXW7 targets mTOR for degradation and cooperates with PTEN in tumor suppression, Science, 321(5895), 1499–1502, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mix, P. E.: Introduction to Nondestructive Testing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2004.
An edited book
Franconi, E., Kifer, M. and May, W., Eds.: The Semantic Web: Research and Applications: 4th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2007, Innsbruck, Austria, June 3-7, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Roberts, R.: Shang Yang and the Performance of Historical Drama in Reform-Era China, in Staging China: New Theatres in the Twenty-First Century, edited by L. Ruru, pp. 61–78, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: New Synthetic Platelets Capable Of Rapidly Stopping Bleeding, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Coordination of Government Research and Development, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Savvas, C.: Hydroclimate variability and landuse effects on nutrient export from watersheds in the mid-Atlantic United States, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J.: A Sequel Rings Familiar, But Keeps the Fun Intact, New York Times, 26th October, C1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willems, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Liu and Diamond, 2005; Willems, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Diamond, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Mao et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev.
ISSN (print)1991-959X
ISSN (online)1991-9603

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