How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rockström, J.: A “perfect” agreement in Paris is not essential, Nature, 527, 411, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pruszynski, J. A. and Diedrichsen, J.: Neuroscience. Reading the mind to move the body, Science, 348, 860–861, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson, D. G., Parman, S. W., and Nowell, G. M.: A link between large mantle melting events and continent growth seen in osmium isotopes, Nature, 449, 202–205, 2007.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Moore, G. F., Bangs, N. L., Taira, A., Kuramoto, S., Pangborn, E., and Tobin, H. J.: Three-dimensional splay fault geometry and implications for tsunami generation, Science, 318, 1128–1131, 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nguyen, T. H.: Leaders and Innovators, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Rjasanow, S.: The Fast Solution of Boundary Integral Equations, edited by: Steinbach, O., Springer US, Boston, MA, XII, 284 p. 97 illus pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Kribich, R. K.: Refractometric Photonic Chips for Biosensing, in: Optical Nano- and Microsystems for Bioanalytics, edited by: Fritzsche, W. and Popp, J., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 155–180, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development.

Blog post
Being Hungry May Affect Your Impulsivity And Decision-Making:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: Projects and Policies Related to Deploying Broadband in Unserved and Underserved Areas, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rees, C. L.: A systems-level investigation into the genetic determinants of childhood-onset schizophrenia, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kennedy, R. and Davey, M.: Detroit’s Creditors Eye Its Art Collection, New York Times, 20th July, C1, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rockström, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Rockström, 2015; Pruszynski and Diedrichsen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pruszynski and Diedrichsen, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Moore et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev.
ISSN (print)1991-959X
ISSN (online)1991-9603

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