How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dzenis, Y.: Material science. Spinning continuous fibers for nanotechnology, Science, 304, 1917–1919, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deng, M. and Hochstrasser, M.: Spatially regulated ubiquitin ligation by an ER/nuclear membrane ligase, Nature, 443, 827–831, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shinkai, K., Mohrs, M., and Locksley, R. M.: Helper T cells regulate type-2 innate immunity in vivo, Nature, 420, 825–829, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
White, S. R., Sottos, N. R., Geubelle, P. H., Moore, J. S., Kessler, M. R., Sriram, S. R., Brown, E. N., and Viswanathan, S.: Autonomic healing of polymer composites, Nature, 409, 794–797, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, B. M.: Fundamentals of Ionized Gases, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
An edited book
Indulska, J., Ma, J., Yang, L. T., Ungerer, T., and Cao, J. (Eds.): Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing: 4th International Conference, UIC 2007, Hong Kong, China, July 11-13, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXXV, 1260 p pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Dordas, C.: Nutrient Management Perspectives in Conservation Agriculture, in: Conservation Agriculture, edited by: Farooq, M. and Siddique, K. H. M., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 79–107, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development.

Blog post
Catalog Of Life’s Colors Created To Assist The Hunt For Extraterrestrial Life:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Student Athletes: Most Schools Meet Proposed Academic Performance Reporting Requirements, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casem, J.: Moku Ka Pawa: Drawn to the Light, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fiske, I. H.: WILLIAM MORRIS, New York Times, 23rd March, REVIEW OF BOOKSBR169, 1907.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dzenis, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Dzenis, 2004; Deng and Hochstrasser, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deng and Hochstrasser, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (White et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev.
ISSN (print)1991-959X
ISSN (online)1991-9603

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