How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D.: Biology back issues free as publishers walk highwire, Nature, 404, 117, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilder-Smith, A. and Gubler, D. J.: PUBLIC HEALTH. Dengue vaccines at a crossroad, Science, 350, 626–627, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fonseca, P. J., Münch, D., and Hennig, R. M.: How cicadas interpret acoustic signals, Nature, 405, 297–298, 2000.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
López-Avilés, S., Kapuy, O., Novák, B., and Uhlmann, F.: Irreversibility of mitotic exit is the consequence of systems-level feedback, Nature, 459, 592–595, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eylert, B.: The Mobile Multimedia Business, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
Pickering, R.: Beginning F# 4.0, 2nd ed. 2016., edited by: Eason, K., Apress, Berkeley, CA, XXI, 309 p. 37 illus., 33 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Gomez-Sanz, J. J. and Fernández, R. F.: INGENIAS, in: Social Coordination Frameworks for Social Technical Systems, edited by: Aldewereld, H., Boissier, O., Dignum, V., Noriega, P., and Padget, J., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 77–99, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development.

Blog post
Ebola Evolved To Become More Deadly During The Recent Outbreak:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: School Lunch Program: Evaluation of Alternatives to Commodity Donations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Litt, D.: Social networking sites and adolescent alcohol use: The role of social images, social norms, and social comparison, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldstein, D.: Cleveland’s Renaissance Reaches the World Series, New York Times, 19th October, B12, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2000; Wilder-Smith and Gubler, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilder-Smith and Gubler, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (López-Avilés et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev.
ISSN (print)1991-959X
ISSN (online)1991-9603

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