How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fernández, J. E.: Materials for aesthetic, energy-efficient, and self-diagnostic buildings, Science, 315, 1807–1810, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hespos, S. J. and Spelke, E. S.: Conceptual precursors to language, Nature, 430, 453–456, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cai, Y., Zhang, G., and Zhang, Y.-W.: Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene, Sci. Rep., 4, 6677, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Johnson, T. C., Brown, E. T., McManus, J., Barry, S., Barker, P., and Gasse, F.: A high-resolution paleoclimate record spanning the past 25,000 years in southern East Africa, Science, 296, 113–132, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Greenspan, D.: Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, 2008.
An edited book
Fraenkel, A. A.: Recollections of a Jewish Mathematician in Germany, edited by: Cohen-Mansfield, J., Springer International Publishing, Cham, XX, 234 p. 42 illus., 19 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Münch, J., Armbrust, O., Kowalczyk, M., and Soto, M.: Process Improvement, in: Software Process Definition and Management, edited by: Armbrust, O., Kowalczyk, M., and Soto, M., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 139–176, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development.

Blog post
Marine Parks And Fishery Management: What’s The Best Way To Protect Fish?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Earth Observing System: Information on NASA’s Selection of Data Centers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene, L.: Perceptions Of Women Leaders In A Catholic Archdiocese: A Phenomenological Study, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F.: Odes to Suburbia, New York Times, 5th March, 14LI9, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fernández, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Fernández, 2007; Hespos and Spelke, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hespos and Spelke, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev.
ISSN (print)1991-959X
ISSN (online)1991-9603

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