How to format your references using the Geoscientific Model Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Model Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashley-Ross, M. A.: BIOMECHANICS. When it’s hip to be square, Science, 349(6243), 30–31, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dyker, C. A. and Bertrand, G.: Chemistry. Soluble allotropes of main-group elements, Science, 321(5892), 1050–1051, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sagy, A., Reches, Z. and Fineberg, J.: Dynamic fracture by large extraterrestrial impacts as the origin of shatter cones, Nature, 418(6895), 310–313, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Loos, R. J. F., Barroso, I., O’rahilly, S. and Wareham, N. J.: Comment on “A common genetic variant is associated with adult and childhood obesity,” Science, 315(5809), 187; author reply 187, 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halstead, P.: Two Oxen Ahead, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK., 2014.
An edited book
Cuyper, C. D. and Pérez-Cotapos S, M. L., Eds.: Dermatologic Complications with Body Art, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Braissant, O., Bachmann, C. and Henry, H.: Expression and Function of Agat, Gamt and CT1 in the Mammalian Brain, in Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease, edited by G. S. Salomons and M. Wyss, pp. 67–81, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Model Development.

Blog post
Hale, T.: NASA Has Released Images Of Real Locations Featured In “The Martian,” IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Financial Education and Counseling Pilot Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medina, L. M.: Living with Global Shocks: Examining the Responses of Firms and Governments, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sanger, D. E., Rosenberg, M. and Schmidt, M. S.: Republicans Join Calls for Independent Investigator, New York Times, 10th May, A19, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ashley-Ross, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ashley-Ross, 2015; Dyker and Bertrand, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dyker and Bertrand, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Loos et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Model Development
AbbreviationGeosci. Model Dev.
ISSN (print)1991-959X
ISSN (online)1991-9603

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