How to format your references using the Sports Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Cuntz M (2011) Carbon cycle: a dent in carbon’s gold standard. Nature 477:547–548
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Shim M, Guyot-Sionnest P (2000) n-type colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. Nature 407:981–983
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Han Y, Bai T, Liu W (2014) Controlled heterogeneous stem cell differentiation on a shape memory hydrogel surface. Sci Rep 4:5815
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Kastner JH, Richmond M, Grosso N, et al (2004) An X-ray outburst from the rapidly accreting young star that illuminates McNeil’s nebula. Nature 430:429–431

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2014) List of MAK and BAT Values 2014. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
1.
Qing S, Mitchell CJ, Wang G (2009) Information and Communications Security: 11th International Conference, ICICS 2009, Beijing, China, December 14-17, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ziegler GM, Vogt T (2012) Mathematics for the People. In: Behrends E, Crato N, Rodrigues JF (eds) Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Engineering.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D (2017) New Zealand’s Alpine Fault Reveals Extreme Underground Heat And Fluid Pressure. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/new-zealands-alpine-fault-reveals-extreme-underground-heat-and-fluid-pressure/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1983) FBI Management of Its Automated Information Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Long RE (2011) Performance Assessment of Predicted Heat Strain in High Heat Stress Exposures. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M (2014) An Alternative to New York Hotels, if Not Welcome by All. New York Times B14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Engineering
AbbreviationSports Eng.
ISSN (print)1369-7072
ISSN (online)1460-2687
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles