How to format your references using the Sports Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Emmons SW (2012) Neuroscience. The mood of a worm. Science 338:475–476
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitoussi C, Bourdon B (2012) Silicon isotope evidence against an enstatite chondrite Earth. Science 335:1477–1480
A journal article with 3 authors
Säterberg T, Sellman S, Ebenman B (2013) High frequency of functional extinctions in ecological networks. Nature 499:468–470
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zheng J, Wang Y, Wang L, et al (2013) Interfacial properties of bilayer and trilayer graphene on metal substrates. Sci Rep 3:2081

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wildi O (2010) Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Privett G (2013) The Constellation Observing Atlas. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Razavi SH, Ebadati EOM, Asadi S, Kaur H (2015) An Efficient Grouping Genetic Algorithm for Data Clustering and Big Data Analysis. In: Acharjya DP, Dehuri S, Sanyal S (eds) Computational Intelligence for Big Data Analysis: Frontier Advances and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 119–142

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Newly Discovered Planet Has Four Parent Stars. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Customs Is Effectively Managing Its Year 2000 Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manalo JB (2017) Ascend Physical Therapy: A Private Practice Clinic for the Next Level. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L (2012) Spacewalk. New York Times ST3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Engineering
AbbreviationSports Eng.
ISSN (print)1369-7072
ISSN (online)1460-2687
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles