How to format your references using the Big Data Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Petherick, Environment and genetics: Making sense of the noise, Nature. 485 (2012) S64-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Byers, S. Dunn, Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection, Science. 338 (2012) 802–804.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.P. Davies, F.W. Chen, Y.A. Ioannou, Transmembrane molecular pump activity of Niemann-Pick C1 protein, Science. 290 (2000) 2295–2298.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.J. Pennington, B. Silva-Santos, T. Silberzahn, M. Escórcio-Correia, M.J. Woodward, S.J. Roberts, A.L. Smith, P.J. Dyson, A.C. Hayday, Early events in the thymus affect the balance of effector and regulatory T cells, Nature. 444 (2006) 1073–1077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Tan, Artificial Immune System Applications in Computersecurity, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
A. Cambini, Generalized Convexity and Optimization: Theory and Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Heinz, S. Friedman, E. Churazov, Vortex Generation by Shock-Bubble Interaction in Galaxy Clusters, in: R. Bonazza, D. Ranjan (Eds.), 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves 1: Volume 1, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Huge Dust Cloud Discovered Around The Moon – But ‘Lunar Glow’ Remains A Mystery, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Science Foundation’s Actions on Recommendations of GAO Report “Opportunities for Improved Management of the Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.K. Lee, Tracking of truck flows for drayage efficiency analysis, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Schwartz, Large Funds Are Dropping Investments in Fossil Fuels, New York Times. (2016) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data Research
AbbreviationBig Data Res.
ISSN (print)2214-5796
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management

Other styles