How to format your references using the Big Data Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Aebischer, Philanthropy: The price of charity, Nature. 481 (2012) 260.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Boughn, R. Crittenden, A correlation between the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure in the Universe, Nature. 427 (2004) 45–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Meeusen, J.M. McCaffery, J. Nunnari, Mitochondrial fusion intermediates revealed in vitro, Science. 305 (2004) 1747–1752.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.G. Blackman, A. Frank, J.A. Markiel, J.H. Thomas, H.M. Van Horn, Dynamos in asymptotic-giant-branch stars as the origin of magnetic fields shaping planetary nebulae, Nature. 409 (2001) 485–487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Nomura, Micromechanics with Mathematica, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
E. Schnug, L.J. De Kok, eds., Phosphorus in Agriculture: 100 % Zero, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
G.H.S. Buitendijk, H. Springelkamp, L. Ho, C.C.W. Klaver, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Genetics and Gene-Environment Interaction, in: H.P.N. Scholl, R.W. Massof, S. West (Eds.), Ophthalmology and the Ageing Society, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 57–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data Research.

Blog post
B. Taub, New Drug Reported To Be 10,000 Times Stronger Than Morphine, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Intercity Passenger Rail: Prospects for Amtrak’s Financial Viability, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.A. Nattress, Benefits of single-gender education: Perceptions of middle grade teachers, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Court to Weigh Disparities in Cocaine Laws, New York Times. (2007) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data Research
AbbreviationBig Data Res.
ISSN (print)2214-5796
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management

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