How to format your references using the Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ito, G. 2001. “Reykjanes ‘V’-Shaped Ridges Originating from a Pulsing and Dehydrating Mantle Plume.” Nature 411 (6838): 681–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Suits, Arthur G., and David H. Parker. 2014. “Photochemistry. Hot Molecules--off the Beaten Path.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6205): 30–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khudiyev, Tural, Osama Tobail, and Mehmet Bayindir. 2014. “Tailoring Self-Organized Nanostructured Morphologies in Kilometer-Long Polymer Fiber.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4864.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Díaz, C., E. Pijper, R. A. Olsen, H. F. Busnengo, D. J. Auerbach, and G. J. Kroes. 2009. “Chemically Accurate Simulation of a Prototypical Surface Reaction: H2 Dissociation on Cu(111).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5954): 832–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Bosse, John G. 2002. Signaling in Telecommunication Networks. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gunsel, Bilge, Anil K. Jain, A. Murat Tekalp, and Bülent Sankur, eds. 2006. Multimedia Content Representation, Classification and Security: International Workshop, MRCS 2006, Istanbul, Turkey, September 11-13, 2006. Proceedings. Vol. 4105. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alba, Enrique, and Gabriel Luque. 2006. “Performance of Distributed GAs on DNA Fragment Assembly.” In Parallel Evolutionary Computations, edited by Nadia Nedjah, Luiza de Macedo Mourelle, and Enrique Alba, 97–115. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “We Are Almost Certainly Not Alone In The Universe.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. National Airspace System: Assessment of FAA’s Efforts to Augment the Global Positioning System. T-RCED-95-219. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Himschoot, Agnes Rose. 2012. “Student Perception of Relevance of Biology Content to Everyday Life: A Study in Higher Education Biology Courses.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2000. “Cold and Tired, Australian Swimmer Wins Marathon for His Father.” New York Times, June 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ito 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ito 2001; Suits and Parker 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Suits and Parker 2014)
  • Three authors: (Khudiyev, Tobail, and Bayindir 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Díaz et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeorisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards
ISSN (print)1749-9518
ISSN (online)1749-9526
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Building and Construction

Other styles