How to format your references using the Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, Tim. 2004. “Starting from Scratch.” Nature 430 (6995): 113.
A journal article with 2 authors
Codelli, Julian A., and Sarah E. Reisman. 2013. “Chemistry. Pactamycin Made Easy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6129): 152–153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reich, D. S., F. Mechler, and J. D. Victor. 2001. “Independent and Redundant Information in Nearby Cortical Neurons.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5551): 2566–2568.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Huang, Peng-Ru, Yao He, Chao Cao, and Zheng-Hong Lu. 2014. “Impact of Lattice Distortion and Electron Doping on α-MoO3 Electronic Structure.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7131.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevens, Bruce A., and Eckhard Roediger. 2016. Breaking Negative Relationship Patterns. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Martens, Bob, and Andre Brown, eds. 2005. Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005: Proceedings of the 11th International CAAD Futures Conference Held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, on June 20–22, 2005. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Slutsky, David J. 2015. “Osteoarthritis of the Thumb.” In Disorders of the Hand: Volume 3: Inflammation, Arthritis and Contractures, edited by Ian A. Trail and Andrew N. M. Fleming, 71–91. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Supermassive Black Holes Become Shrouded In Dust During Galaxy Mergers.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 6. 144387. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaisson, Charles. 2014. “An Investigation of Lower Wilcox Group Coals in Portions of Avoyelles, Catahoula, Concordia, Grant, Lasalle, and Rapides Parishes, Louisiana.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Behind the Scenes; Though Advisers Differ, Clinton’s in Tune With All.” New York Times, September 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman 2004; Codelli and Reisman 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Codelli and Reisman 2013)
  • Three authors: (Reich, Mechler, and Victor 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeorisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards
ISSN (print)1749-9518
ISSN (online)1749-9526
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Building and Construction

Other styles