How to format your references using the Geology of the Intermountain West citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology of the Intermountain West. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ostrom, E., 2009, A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 325, no. 5939, p. 419–422.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rivkin, A.S., and Emery, J.P., 2010, Detection of ice and organics on an asteroidal surface: Nature, v. 464, no. 7293, p. 1322–1323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wiedemann, N., Meisinger, C., and Pfanner, N., 2009, Cell biology. Connecting organelles: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 325, no. 5939, p. 403–404.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Gershengorn, M.C., Hardikar, A.A., Wei, C., Geras-Raaka, E., Marcus-Samuels, B., and Raaka, B.M., 2004, Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition generates proliferative human islet precursor cells: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 306, no. 5705, p. 2261–2264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann, K., 2005, System Integration: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lu, T., 2014, Vibro-Acoustics of Lightweight Sandwich Structures (F. Xin, Ed.): Springer Tracts in Mechanical Engineering, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, XIII, 339 p. 140 illus., 95 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Herren, C., 2016, An Un-American Horror Story, in Lowery, C., Walker, A., and Thomas, C., editors, Un-Democratic Acts: New Departures for Dialogues in Society and Schools: Rotterdam, SensePublishers, p. 51–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology of the Intermountain West.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015, U.K. Is The Only G7 Country To INCREASE Fossil Fuel Subsidies: Online,, accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012, Pipeline Safety:Collecting Data and Sharing Information on Federally Unregulated Gathering Pipelines Could Help Enhance Safety: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-12-388.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rus, E.L., 2017, A grant proposal for program “Tech Connect”: Bridging the generations through technology coaching: Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach, Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2005, Revolving Roles: New York Times, p. 14LI12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ostrom, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ostrom, 2009; Rivkin and Emery, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rivkin and Emery, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Gershengorn and others, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology of the Intermountain West
ISSN (print)2380-7601

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