How to format your references using the Geology of the Intermountain West citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology of the Intermountain West. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hallonsten, O., 2015, Europe needs fresh focus on big-science projects: Nature, v. 518, no. 7539, p. 275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradbury, A., and Plückthun, A., 2015, Reproducibility: Standardize antibodies used in research: Nature, v. 518, no. 7537, p. 27–29.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miner-Williams, W.M., Moughan, P.J., and Fuller, M.F., 2013, Analysis of an ethanol precipitate from ileal digesta: evaluation of a method to determine mucin: Scientific reports, v. 3, p. 3145.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Chakrabarty, R.K., Beres, N.D., Moosmüller, H., China, S., Mazzoleni, C., Dubey, M.K., Liu, L., and Mishchenko, M.I., 2014, Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 5508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme, R., 2013, Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures: Hoboken, NJ USA, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Amara, S.G. (Ed.), 2007, Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, IV, 161 p. 14 illus., 9 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Sturre, L., Chiappe, D., Vu, K.-P.L., and Strybel, T.Z., 2015, Using Eye Movements to Test Assumptions of the Situation Present Assessment Method, in Yamamoto, S., editor, Human Interface and the Management of Information. Information and Knowledge in Context: 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part II: Cham, Springer International Publishing Lecture Notes in Computer Science, p. 45–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology of the Intermountain West.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014, Your Brain Is “Hard-Wired” To React Without Thinking: Online,, accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005, Business Modernization: Some Progress Made toward Implementing GAO Recommendations Related to NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-05-799R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heckman, K.A., 2010, Pedogenesis & carbon dynamics across a lithosequence under ponderosa pine: Tucson, AZ, University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mann, M., 2015, The Other Side of Boredom: New York Times, p. SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hallonsten, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bradbury and Plückthun, 2015; Hallonsten, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bradbury and Plückthun, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Chakrabarty and others, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology of the Intermountain West
ISSN (print)2380-7601

Other styles