How to format your references using the Geology of the Intermountain West citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology of the Intermountain West. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sawyer, R.J., 2000, The abdication of Pope Mary III...or Galileo’s revenge: Nature, v. 406, no. 6791, p. 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sosnick, T.R., and Hinshaw, J.R., 2011, Biochemistry. How proteins fold: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 334, no. 6055, p. 464–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wilson, A.M., Watson, J.C., and Lichtwark, G.A., 2003, Biomechanics: A catapult action for rapid limb protraction: Nature, v. 421, no. 6918, p. 35–36.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Nicoll, R.A., Mellor, J., Frerking, M., and Schmitz, D., 2000, Kainate receptors and synaptic plasticity: Nature, v. 406, no. 6799, p. 957.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andresen, R., Oades, L.G., and Caputi, P., 2011, Psychological Recovery: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pinn, A.B. (Ed.), 2016, Humanism and Technology: Opportunities and Challenges: Studies in Humanism and Atheism, Cham, Springer International Publishing, Studies in Humanism and Atheism, XIV, 239 p. 1 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Stackowiak, R., Licht, A., Mantha, V., and Nagode, L., 2015, Understanding Organizational Skills, in Licht, A., Mantha, V., and Nagode, L., editors, Big Data and the Internet of Things: Enterprise Information Architecture for a New Age: Berkeley, CA, Apress, p. 99–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology of the Intermountain West.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, Who Was The Taung Child? accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010, Recovery Act: Head Start Grantees Expand Services, but More Consistent Communication Could Improve Accountability and Decisions about Spending: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-11-166.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Machula, M., 2014, Understanding and Predicting Teachers’ Knowledge of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Edwardsville, IL, Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2013, Pork Belly, Yes; Popovers, No: New York Times, p. LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sawyer, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sawyer, 2000; Sosnick and Hinshaw, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sosnick and Hinshaw, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Nicoll and others, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology of the Intermountain West
ISSN (print)2380-7601

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