How to format your references using the Geology of the Intermountain West citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology of the Intermountain West. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ober, C.K., 2002, Self-assembly. Persistence pays off: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 296, no. 5569, p. 859–861.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahmed, W.W., and Saif, T.A., 2014, Active transport of vesicles in neurons is modulated by mechanical tension: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 4481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Al-Zaid, F.S., Alhader, A.A., and Al-Ayadhi, L.Y., 2014, Altered ghrelin levels in boys with autism: a novel finding associated with hormonal dysregulation: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 6478.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Müller, C., Schlindwein, V., Eckstaller, A., and Miller, H., 2005, Singing icebergs: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 310, no. 5752, p. 1299.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matte, G.S., 2015, Perfusion for Congenital Heart Surgery: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nishikawa, K., Maruani, J., Brändas, E.J., Delgado-Barrio, G., and Piecuch, P. (Eds.), 2012, Quantum Systems in Chemistry and Physics: Progress in Methods and Applications: Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, XXII, 574 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Safey El Din, M., 2008, Practical and Theoretical Issues for the Computation of Generalized Critical Values of a Polynomial Mapping, in Kapur, D., editor, Computer Mathematics: 8th Asian Symposium, ASCM 2007, Singapore, December 15-17, 2007. Revised and Invited Papers: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, p. 42–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology of the Intermountain West.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016, Climate Change Is Causing Chilean Mummies To Melt Into Black Sludge: Online,, accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982, A Summary of the Legislative Provisions of the Block Grants Created by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act: U.S. Government Printing Office IPE-83-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thornsberry, J.L., 2010, Freshman transition and its effectiveness on student success as measured by improved attendance, improved grades, decreased discipline referrals, and decreased dropout rate: St. Charles, MO, Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, C., 2017, American Contingent’s Strength Is in Numbers, and Youth: New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ober, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ober, 2002; Ahmed and Saif, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahmed and Saif, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Müller and others, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology of the Intermountain West
ISSN (print)2380-7601

Other styles