How to format your references using the Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Garwood R. Uprooting researchers can drive them out of science. Nature. 2014;510:313.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Megens M, Aizenberg J. Capillary attraction: like-charged particles at liquid interfaces. Nature. 2003;424:1014; discussion 1014.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schuler B, Lipman EA, Eaton WA. Probing the free-energy surface for protein folding with single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. Nature. 2002;419:743–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen R, Wheeler PJ, Di Ventra M, Natelson D. Enhanced noise at high bias in atomic-scale Au break junctions. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dos Santos EC Jr, Cabral da Silva ER. ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
1. Koenig HG. Health and Well-Being in Islamic Societies: Background, Research, and Applications. Shohaib SA, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fischer P, Berton A, Nürnberger A. Adaptive Search Results Personalized by a Fuzzy Recommendation Approach. In: André E, Dybkjær L, Minker W, Neumann H, Pieraccini R, Weber M, editors. Perception in Multimodal Dialogue Systems: 4th IEEE Tutorial and Research Workshop on Perception and Interactive Technologies for Speech-Based Systems, PIT 2008, Kloster Irsee, Germany, June 16-18, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 26–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Discovered: Stone Tools That Go Back Beyond Earliest Humans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Certification: FAA Has Made Continued Progress in Improving Its Processes for U.S. Aviation Products. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 Mar. Report No.: GAO-17-508T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Limpert SM. A Qualitative Study of Learning Spaces at a Midwest Elementary School and its Relationship to Student Attitudes about Reading [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. From a Young Life of Crime to Comedy. New York Times. 2017 Aug 20;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Journal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. J. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1865-7257
ISSN (online)1865-7265
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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