How to format your references using the Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schiermeier Q. Deep-sea sub aims to get to the bottom of a muddy issue. Nature. 2003;423:469.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mabuchi H, Doherty AC. Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context. Science. 2002;298:1372–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schuck C, Pernice WHP, Tang HX. Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1893.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen F, Hong H, Shi S, Goel S, Valdovinos HF, Hernandez R, et al. Engineering of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles for remarkably enhanced tumor active targeting efficacy. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5080.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Britton M. YouthNation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Daniel F, Dolog P, Li Q, editors. Web Engineering: 13th International Conference, ICWE 2013, Aalborg, Denmark, July 8-12, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Christofferson MS. “The Best Help I Could Find to Understand Our Present”: François Furet’s Antirevolutionary Reading of Tocqueville’s Democracy in America. In: Sawyer SW, Stewart I, editors. In Search of the Liberal Moment: Democracy, Anti-totalitarianism, and Intellectual Politics in France since 1950. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. p. 85–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Pandas’ Bamboo-Only Diet Should Kill Them [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/pandas-bamboo-only-diet-should-kill-them/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Has Increased Efforts to Address Runway Incursions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-1169T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. MacKinder M. Max the Knife, Salesman [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McAULEY J. Breaking the Mold. New York Times. 2017 Mar 17;M2128.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Journal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. J. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1865-7257
ISSN (online)1865-7265
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Gastroenterology

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