How to format your references using the Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Segal M. Material history: Learning from silicon. Nature. 2012;483:S43-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Palmer TN, Räisänen J. Quantifying the risk of extreme seasonal precipitation events in a changing climate. Nature. 2002;415:512–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Son MY, Lee J-K, Kang YC. Fabrication and electrochemical performance of 0.6Li2MnO3-0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 microspheres by two-step spray-drying process. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5752.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ranz JM, Castillo-Davis CI, Meiklejohn CD, Hartl DL. Sex-dependent gene expression and evolution of the Drosophila transcriptome. Science. 2003;300:1742–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zink M. Scalable Video on Demand. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Chbeir R, Al Bouna B, editors. Security and Privacy Preserving in Social Networks. Vienna: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Atmanspacher H. A Semiotic Approach to Complex Systems. In: Köhler R, editor. Aspects of Automatic Text Analysis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 79–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. 14,000-Year-Old Tooth Shows Oldest Form Of Dentistry And It’s Pretty Grim [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/14000-year-old-tooth-shows-oldest-form-dentistry-and-it-s-pretty-grim/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Managed Care Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: HEHS-96-153R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Choi KK. Conspiracy and alternative crimes in the Military Commissions Act of 2009: Is There a Way Out? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. One Injured Player Comes to Another’s Aid, but Now Murray Looms. New York Times. 2017 Jun 1;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Journal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. J. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1865-7257
ISSN (online)1865-7265
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Gastroenterology

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