How to format your references using the Geological Society, London, Special Publications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society, London, Special Publications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Worlock, D.R. 2001. The best and worst of times. Nature, 413, 671.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher, A.T. and Becker, K. 2000. Channelized fluid flow in oceanic crust reconciles heat-flow and permeability data. Nature, 403, 71–74.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reynolds, A.M., Leprêtre, L. and Bohan, D.A. 2013. Movement patterns of Tenebrio beetles demonstrate empirically that correlated-random-walks have similitude with a Lévy walk. Scientific reports, 3, 3158.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Daniels, M.J., Wang, Y., Lee, M. and Venkitaraman, A.R. 2004. Abnormal cytokinesis in cells deficient in the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306, 876–879.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frueh, B.C., Grubaugh, A.L., Elhai, J.D. and Ford, J.D. 2012. Assessment and Treatment Planning for PTSD.
An edited book
Asuelime, L., Yaro, J. and Francis, S. (eds). 2014. Selected Themes in African Development Studies: Economic Growth, Governance and the Environment. Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development.
A chapter in an edited book
Zuazo, V.H.D., Pleguezuelo, C.R.R., Flanagan, D., Tejero, I.G. and Fernández, J.L.M. 2011. Sustainable Land Use and Agricultural Soil. In: Lichtfouse, E. (ed.) Alternative Farming Systems, Biotechnology, Drought Stress and Ecological Fertilisation. 107–192.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society, London, Special Publications.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2017. Can You Spot The 1.8-Meter Snake Lurking In This Photo? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Implementation of Section 203, Public Law 91-441, on Payments for Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. B-167034.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bemmel, E.P. 2008. A Cost -Effectiveness Analysis of Two Community College Baccalaureate Programs in Florida: An Exploratory Study. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. 2017. How a Network Missed Out On the Weinstein Exposé. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Worlock 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Fisher and Becker 2000; Worlock 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fisher and Becker 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Daniels et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society, London, Special Publications
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Spec. Publ.
ISSN (print)0305-8719
ISSN (online)2041-4927
Ocean Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles