How to format your references using the Geological Society, London, Special Publications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society, London, Special Publications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchen, L. 2011. Cancer: Missing the mark. Nature, 471, 428–432.
A journal article with 2 authors
To, T.-L. and Maheshri, N. 2010. Noise can induce bimodality in positive transcriptional feedback loops without bistability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327, 1142–1145.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dally, J.M., Emery, N.J. and Clayton, N.S. 2006. Food-caching western scrub-jays keep track of who was watching when. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312, 1662–1665.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Könneke, M., Bernhard, A.E., de la Torre, J.R., Walker, C.B., Waterbury, J.B. and Stahl, D.A. 2005. Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon. Nature, 437, 543–546.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lincoln, N.B., Kneebone, I.I., Macniven, J.A.B. and Morris, R.C. 2011. Psychological Management of Stroke.
An edited book
Graaf, J. de. 2015. ApoB in Clinical Care. Couture, P. and Sniderman, A. D. (eds).
A chapter in an edited book
Droste-Franke, B., Paal, B.P., Rehtanz, C., Sauer, D.U., Schneider, J.-P., Schreurs, M. and Ziesemer, T. 2012. Technologies for Balancing Electrical Energy and Power. In: Paal, B. P., Rehtanz, C., Sauer, D. U., Schneider, J.-P., Schreurs, M. and Ziesemer, T. (eds) Balancing Renewable Electricity: Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective. Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment, 83–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society, London, Special Publications.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016. Chew On This: We Finally Know How Our Jaws Evolved. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Early Education and Care: Overlap Indicates Need to Assess Crosscutting Programs. HEHS-00-78.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren, J.S. 2012. Trust in Immediate Supervisor, Trust in Top Management, Organizational Trust Precursors: Predictors of Organizational Effectiveness. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McMORROW, R. and Forsythe, M. 2017. Chinese Tech Tycoon to Leave Troubled Company. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buchen 2011).
This sentence cites two references (To and Maheshri 2010; Buchen 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (To and Maheshri 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Könneke et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society, London, Special Publications
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Spec. Publ.
ISSN (print)0305-8719
ISSN (online)2041-4927
Ocean Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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