How to format your references using the Geodesy and Geodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geodesy and Geodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.M. Carroll, Is our Universe natural?, Nature. 440 (2006) 1132–1136.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.M. Embley, W. Martin, Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges, Nature. 440 (2006) 623–630.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Houstis, E.D. Rosen, E.S. Lander, Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance, Nature. 440 (2006) 944–948.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Gruber, M. Freeley, N. Thuille, I. Heit, S. Shaw, A. Long, G. Baier, Comment on “PDK1 nucleates T cell receptor-induced signaling complex for NF-kappaB activation,” Science. 312 (2006) 55; author reply 55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Hill, G. Solt, Engineering Money, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
D.S. Yeung, Z.-Q. Liu, X.-Z. Wang, H. Yan, eds., Advances in Machine Learning and Cybernetics: 4th International Conference, ICMLC 2005, Guangzhou, China, August 18-21, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Kano, Y. Yamashita, H. Kugemoto, Shape-based Stiction Detection, in: M. Jelali, B. Huang (Eds.), Detection and Diagnosis of Stiction in Control Loops: State of the Art and Advanced Methods, Springer, London, 2010: pp. 103–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geodesy and Geodynamics.

Blog post
J. Davis, Ants Have Been Cultivating Plants In Fiji For Millions Of Years, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Acquisition: A Comprehensive Strategy Is Needed for Cultural Change at FAA, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.S. Hernandez, Professionals’ perceptions of effective interventions with elderly hoarders, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Check In /Check Out; MIAMI BEACH, FLA.: Soho Beach House, New York Times. (2010) TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeodesy and Geodynamics
AbbreviationGeod. Geodyn.
ISSN (print)1674-9847

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