How to format your references using the Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Eisenstein, Clinical trials: More trials, fewer tribulations, Nature. 509 (2014) S55-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.S. Roth, D.D. Deheyn, Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1421.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Goldberg, F. Berna, R.I. Macphail, Comment on “DNA from pre-Clovis human coprolites in Oregon, North America,” Science. 325 (2009) 148; author reply 148.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Li, Y.A. Samad, K. Polychronopoulou, S.M. Alhassan, K. Liao, Highly electrically conductive nanocomposites based on polymer-infused graphene sponges, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4652.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Furger, Live Cell Assays, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
T. Cheng, ed., Hematopoietic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, 1st ed. 2015, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Kirk, N. Shahzad, Ultrametric Spaces, in: N. Shahzad (Ed.), Fixed Point Theory in Distance Spaces, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 25–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews.

Blog post
J. Davis, Half Of What Makes Up The Chromosomes In Your Cells Is Not Actually DNA, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Head Start: Information on Federal Funds Unspent by Program Grantees, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Choubey, Quantitative Assessment of Fgfr1 Expression in Neurons and Glia of the Developing Mouse Brain, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, After Waco’s Inferno, an Inquisition That Insists on Rational Answers, New York Times. (1993) 43.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
AbbreviationCytokine Growth Factor Rev.
ISSN (print)1359-6101
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles