How to format your references using the Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Robinson, Personal finance. So what should you invest in?, Science. 313 (2006) 1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Monroe, J. Kim, Scaling the ion trap quantum processor, Science. 339 (2013) 1164–1169.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Postma, S.C. Griffith, R. Brooks, Evolutionary genetics: evolution of mate choice in the wild, Nature. 444 (2006) E16; discussion E16-7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Zheng, H. Wu, L. Kuang, J. Qin, W. Du, J. Wang, D. Li, A simple model clarifies the complicated relationships of complex networks, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Boeker, R. Van Grondelle, Environmental Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
S. Apikyan, D. Diamond, eds., Countering Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
S.A. Edwards, N. Vasudevan, Compiling SHIM, in: S.K. Shukla, J.-P. Talpin (Eds.), Synthesis of Embedded Software: Frameworks and Methodologies for Correctness by Construction, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2010: pp. 121–146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, This Fully-Automated Medical Machine Can Perform Surgery 50X Faster Than Surgeons, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Financial Literacy: Overlap of Programs Suggests There May Be Opportunities for Consolidation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y.I. Kim, Essays on Volatility Risk, Asset Returns and Consumption-Based Asset Pricing, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. David Goodman, Mayor Fills Key Position in City’s Effort to Combat Rise in Homelessness, New York Times. (2016) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
AbbreviationCytokine Growth Factor Rev.
ISSN (print)1359-6101
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles