How to format your references using the Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heber, U., 2002. Astronomy. White dwarf mergers and the rebirth of luminous stars. Science 296, 2344–2345.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, T.J., Mundy, G.R., 2007. Bone metastasis: can osteoclasts be excluded? Nature 445, E19; discussion E19-20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tschöp, M., Smiley, D.L., Heiman, M.L., 2000. Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature 407, 908–913.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, R., Kermani, P., Teng, K.K., Hempstead, B.L., 2001. Regulation of cell survival by secreted proneurotrophins. Science 294, 1945–1948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Youssef, H.A., 2015. Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Arnold, M., Schiehlen, W. (Eds.), 2009. Simulation Techniques for Applied Dynamics, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Martin, C., Gardner, H., 2016. A Percussion-Focussed Approach to Preserving Touch-Screen Improvisation, in: England, D., Schiphorst, T., Bryan-Kinns, N. (Eds.), Curating the Digital: Space for Art and Interaction, Springer Series on Cultural Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 51–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why The Cradle Of Humankind Is One Of The Most Precious Fossil Sites In The World [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Education and Employment Issue Area--Active Assignments (No. AA-97-13(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crivello, A., 2009. DNA methylation of the interferon-gamma promoter in association with overexpression of the interferon-gamma gene in periodontal disease (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall, A., 2016. Brownsville Residents Seek Answers After a Mentally Ill Ex-Convict Is Fatally Shot. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heber, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Heber, 2002; Martin and Mundy, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Mundy, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputerized Medical Imaging and Graphics
AbbreviationComput. Med. Imaging Graph.
ISSN (print)0895-6111
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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