How to format your references using the Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe, H., 2000. Jordan chosen to open SESAME. Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East. Nature 406, 221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scott, J.D., Pawson, T., 2009. Cell signaling in space and time: where proteins come together and when they’re apart. Science 326, 1220–1224.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jackson, A., Mavoori, J., Fetz, E.E., 2006. Long-term motor cortex plasticity induced by an electronic neural implant. Nature 444, 56–60.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Plass, R., Last, J.A., Bartelt, N.C., Kellogg, G.L., 2001. Nanostructures. Self-assembled domain patterns. Nature 412, 875.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geisser, S., 2005. Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference: Geisser/Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sipahi, R., Vyhlídal, T., Niculescu, S.-I., Pepe, P. (Eds.), 2012. Time Delay Systems: Methods, Applications and New Trends, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lennquist, S., 2014. Response to Major Incidents and Disasters: An Important Part of Trauma Management, in: Oestern, H.-J., Trentz, O., Uranues, S. (Eds.), General Trauma Care and Related Aspects: Trauma Surgery II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. World’s First Lab-Grown Chicken Has Been Tasted And Apparently It’s Delicious [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. NASA: Briefing on National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Programs and Associated Activities (No. GAO-10-87R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haghighat, R., 2015. An optimization model to allocate budget in school rehabilitation projects (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Idea Reborn: Mets Consider Six-Man Rotation. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCabe, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (McCabe, 2000; Scott and Pawson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scott and Pawson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Plass et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputerized Medical Imaging and Graphics
AbbreviationComput. Med. Imaging Graph.
ISSN (print)0895-6111
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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