How to format your references using the Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hastings, A., 2003. Metapopulation persistence with age-dependent disturbance or succession. Science 301, 1525–1526.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kolaczkowski, B., Thornton, J.W., 2004. Performance of maximum parsimony and likelihood phylogenetics when evolution is heterogeneous. Nature 431, 980–984.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, A.R., Dörfelt, H., Perrichot, V., 2007. Carnivorous fungi from Cretaceous amber. Science 318, 1743.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mo, M.Z., Chen, Z., Li, R.K., Dunning, M., Witte, B.B.L., Baldwin, J.K., Fletcher, L.B., Kim, J.B., Ng, A., Redmer, R., Reid, A.H., Shekhar, P., Shen, X.Z., Shen, M., Sokolowski-Tinten, K., Tsui, Y.Y., Wang, Y.Q., Zheng, Q., Wang, X.J., Glenzer, S.H., 2018. Heterogeneous to homogeneous melting transition visualized with ultrafast electron diffraction. Science 360, 1451–1455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steland, A., 2012. Financial Statistics and Mathematical Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Wagner, I., 2011. Post-Silicon and Runtime Verification for Modern Processors. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Castelo-Branco, G., Emmanuel-Costa, D., 2015. Flavour Physics and CP Violation in the Standard Model and Beyond, in: Merino, C. (Ed.), Lectures on Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology: Proceedings of the Third IDPASC School, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, January 21 -- February 2, 2013, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 145–186.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why Mothers Matter More Than Diet When It Comes To The Obesity Crisis [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Telecommunications: Federal Broadband Deployment Programs and Small Business (No. GAO-14-203). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meeks, J.D., 2009. From the belly of the HUAC: The HUAC investigations of Hollywood, 1947–1952 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1993. PRESIDENT MOVES IN FAVOR OF LABOR. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hastings, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hastings, 2003; Kolaczkowski and Thornton, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kolaczkowski and Thornton, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Mo et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputerized Medical Imaging and Graphics
AbbreviationComput. Med. Imaging Graph.
ISSN (print)0895-6111
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles