How to format your references using the Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spitzer, N.C., 2015. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE. Neurotransmitter-tailored dendritic trees. Science 350, 510–511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hector, A., Bagchi, R., 2007. Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature 448, 188–190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Houlié, N., Dreger, D., Kim, A., 2014. GPS source solution of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Sci. Rep. 4, 3646.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Naskar, D., Nayak, S., Dey, T., Kundu, S.C., 2014. Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface. Sci. Rep. 4, 4745.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mathian, H., Sanders, L., 2014. Spatio-Temporal Approaches. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cabrera, P.J., 2009. iPhone Games Projects. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Reyes, M., Shahim, K., Jürgens, P., 2016. Computational Image-Guided Technologies in Cranio-Maxillofacial Soft Tissue Planning and Simulation, in: Ritacco, L.E., Milano, F.E., Chao, E. (Eds.), Computer-Assisted Musculoskeletal Surgery: Thinking and Executing in 3D. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. “Death Spiral” Could Be A Fourth Phase Of Life [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Commercial Aviation: Despite Industry Turmoil, Low-Cost Airlines Are Growing and Profitable (No. GAO-04-837T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beal, M.E., 2013. Predictive qualities of social characteristics and social integration on altruistic outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. Across the Spectrum, Conspiracy Talk Is Rife. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spitzer, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hector and Bagchi, 2007; Spitzer, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hector and Bagchi, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Naskar et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputerized Medical Imaging and Graphics
AbbreviationComput. Med. Imaging Graph.
ISSN (print)0895-6111
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles