How to format your references using the Geocarto International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geocarto International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie Y. 2014. Sociology of science. “Undemocracy”: inequalities in science. Science. 344(6186):809–810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helms B, Meijer EW. 2006. Chemistry. Dendrimers at work. Science. 313(5789):929–930.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galloway KE, Franco E, Smolke CD. 2013. Dynamically reshaping signaling networks to program cell fate via genetic controllers. Science. 341(6152):1235005.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Gu Z, Steinmetz LM, Gu X, Scharfe C, Davis RW, Li W-H. 2003. Role of duplicate genes in genetic robustness against null mutations. Nature. 421(6918):63–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ndjountche T. 2016. Digital Electronics 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Levitt SH, Purdy JA, Perez CA, Poortmans P, editors. 2012. Technical Basis of Radiation Therapy: Practical Clinical Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
McKay CP. 2010. Disorders of Calcium Metabolism. In: Feld LG, Kaskel FJ, editors. Fluid and Electrolytes in Pediatrics: A Comprehensive Handbook. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; p. 105–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geocarto International.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Why Are We Afraid Of Spiders? IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Charter Schools: Use of Start-Up Grant Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quick TD. 2012. Faith-based charter school success at education ground zero [Doctoral dissertation]. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. 2007. Beachfront Cafe. New York Times.:14NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xie 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Helms and Meijer 2006; Xie 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Helms and Meijer 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeocarto International
AbbreviationGeocarto Int.
ISSN (print)1010-6049
ISSN (online)1752-0762
ScopeWater Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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