How to format your references using the Geocarto International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geocarto International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xanthos M. 2012. Recycling of the #5 polymer. Science. 337:700–702.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fernández-Martínez LT, Bibb MJ. 2014. Use of the meganuclease I-SceI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to select for gene deletions in actinomycetes. Sci Rep. 4:7100.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taguchi A, Wartschow LM, White MF. 2007. Brain IRS2 signaling coordinates life span and nutrient homeostasis. Science. 317:369–372.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Huang B, Wang W, Bates M, Zhuang X. 2008. Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Science. 319:810–813.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell RS, Cosner C. 2004. Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Leitner G, Hitz M, Holzinger A, editors. 2010. HCI in Work and Learning, Life and Leisure: 6th Symposium of the Workgroup Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Engineering, USAB 2010, Klagenfurt, Austria, November 4-5, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Legner C. 2009. Is There a Market for Web Services? In: Nitto ED, Ripeanu M, editors. Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2007 Workshops: ICSOC 2007, International Workshops, Vienna, Austria, September 17, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 29–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geocarto International.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. New Hope for a Dengue Fever Vaccine. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Electronic Health Information: HHS Needs to Strengthen Security and Privacy Guidance and Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldstein TW. 2010. Writing in red: The East German Writers Union and the role of literary intellectuals in the German Democratic Republic, 1971-90 [Doctoral dissertation]. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski S. 2015. The Power of a Simple Nudge. New York Times.:BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xanthos 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Xanthos 2012; Fernández-Martínez & Bibb 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fernández-Martínez & Bibb 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeocarto International
AbbreviationGeocarto Int.
ISSN (print)1010-6049
ISSN (online)1752-0762
ScopeWater Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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