How to format your references using the Geocarto International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geocarto International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parham P. 2004. Immunology. NK cells lose their inhibition. Science. 305(5685):786–787.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reverter D, Lima CD. 2005. Insights into E3 ligase activity revealed by a SUMO-RanGAP1-Ubc9-Nup358 complex. Nature. 435(7042):687–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Riordan M, Moors MA, Portnoy DA. 2003. Listeria intracellular growth and virulence require host-derived lipoic acid. Science. 302(5644):462–464.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Su D, Xie X, Dou S, Wang G. 2014. CuO single crystal with exposed {001} facets--a highly efficient material for gas sensing and Li-ion battery applications. Sci Rep. 4:5753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padgett S. 2014. Profiling the Fraudster. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Robinson L Jr, editor. 2015. Proceedings of the 2009 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Khan A, Prasad M. 2009. Tumors of Thyroid Gland: Non-C cell Tumors. In: Khan A, editor. Surgical Pathology of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; p. 41–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geocarto International.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2016. Germany Just Produced So Much Renewable Energy That It Had To Pay People To Use It. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. DOD’s Automated Telecommunications Centers Reduce the Impact of Message Volume on Staffing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alajmi H. 2012. Pre-Islamic Poetry and Speech Act Theory: Al-A`shá, Bishr ibn Abī Khāzim, and al-Hujayjah [Doctoral dissertation]. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fausset R. 2017. After Proudly Defying Washington, Hard-Hit Texas Needs Its Aid. New York Times.:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parham 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Parham 2004; Reverter & Lima 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reverter & Lima 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Su et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeocarto International
AbbreviationGeocarto Int.
ISSN (print)1010-6049
ISSN (online)1752-0762
ScopeWater Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles