How to format your references using the HPB citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HPB. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchanan M. Physics in finance: Trading at the speed of light. Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):161–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neuman Y, Cohen Y. A vectorial semantics approach to personality assessment. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 23;4:4761.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell A, Shennan S, Thomas MG. Late Pleistocene demography and the appearance of modern human behavior. Science. 2009 Jun 5;324(5932):1298–301.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Meylan E, Dooley AL, Feldser DM, Shen L, Turk E, Ouyang C, et al. Requirement for NF-kappaB signalling in a mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma. Nature. 2009 Nov 5;462(7269):104–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dowd K. Measuring Market Risk. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Ganesh K. Design and Development of Knowledge Management for Manufacturing: Framework, Solution and Strategy. Mohapatra S, Nagarajan S, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Banerjee A, Sur B. Primitive Channels: Concurrency Control. In: Sur B, editor. SystemC and SystemC-AMS in Practice: SystemC 23, 22 and SystemC-AMS 10. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 13–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HPB.

Blog post
Carpineti A. An AI Was Trained To Create New Colors. It Was Wonderfully Terrible. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Payments by DOD for Contractors’ Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Sep. Report No.: B-167034.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dobbs J. The Potential Use of PEI Modified Biochar for Different Environmental Applications [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Untouched, But Touched. New York Times. 2001 Sep 30;141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buchanan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Neuman and Cohen 2014; Buchanan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neuman and Cohen 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Meylan et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleHPB
ISSN (print)1365-182X

Other styles