How to format your references using the HPB citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HPB. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clary DC. Chemistry. Geometric phase in chemical reactions. Science. 2005 Aug 19;309(5738):1195–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ngai JT, Srivastava DS. Predators accelerate nutrient cycling in a bromeliad ecosystem. Science. 2006 Nov 10;314(5801):963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stine AR, Huybers P, Fung IY. Changes in the phase of the annual cycle of surface temperature. Nature. 2009 Jan 22;457(7228):435–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huang C, Rajfur Z, Borchers C, Schaller MD, Jacobson K. JNK phosphorylates paxillin and regulates cell migration. Nature. 2003 Jul 10;424(6945):219–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gadd K. TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Röfer T, Mayer NM, Savage J, Saranlı U, editors. RoboCup 2011: Robot Soccer World Cup XV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7416).
A chapter in an edited book
Levin G, Luchs JS, Ortiz AO. Percutaneous Spinal Facet and Sacroiliac Joint Injection. In: Gangi A, Guth S, Guermazi A, editors. Imaging in Percutaneous Musculoskeletal Interventions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 73–82. (Baert AL, Knauth M, Sartor K, editors. Medical Radiology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HPB.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Take The Pressure Off The Cost Of Our Water Supply [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Feb. Report No.: 122631.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dubin-Thaler BJ. Evidence for hierarchical control of conserved, discrete motility types in crawling motility [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. France Loses to the U.S., With Typical Elegance. New York Times. 2011 Jul 14;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clary 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Clary 2005; Ngai and Srivastava 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ngai and Srivastava 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleHPB
ISSN (print)1365-182X

Other styles