How to format your references using the HPB citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HPB. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wong G. Recruiters and industry. Get a foot in the door. Nature. 2004 Oct 28;431(7012):1128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Woodside MT, McEuen PL. Scanned probe imaging of single-electron charge states in nanotube quantum dots. Science. 2002 May 10;296(5570):1098–101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ungless MA, Magill PJ, Bolam JP. Uniform inhibition of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area by aversive stimuli. Science. 2004 Mar 26;303(5666):2040–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Raj L, Ide T, Gurkar AU, Foley M, Schenone M, Li X, et al. Selective killing of cancer cells by a small molecule targeting the stress response to ROS. Nature. 2011 Jul 13;475(7355):231–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Costa PJ. Applied Mathematics for the Analysis of Biomedical Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Rajsingh EB, Bhojan A, Peter JD, editors. Informatics and Communication Technologies for Societal Development: Proceedings of ICICTS 2014. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Xia Y, Fu M. SMC for Missile Systems Based on Back-Stepping and ESO Techniques. In: Fu M, editor. Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 65–81. (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HPB.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Smartphone Case Will Apparently Save Your Sperm From Radiation Damage [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS 2001 Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Jul. Report No.: GAO-01-855R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller DB. Nurse educators’ leadership styles and nurse graduates’ licensure passage rates [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philipps D, Hubbard B. Video Shows U.S. Soldiers Who Died In Jordan. New York Times. 2017 Jul 25;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wong 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Woodside and McEuen 2002; Wong 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Woodside and McEuen 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Raj et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleHPB
ISSN (print)1365-182X

Other styles