How to format your references using the HPB citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HPB. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardt W-D. Journal club. An infection biologist points out an outstanding issue in mucosal immunology. Nature. 2009 Jun 18;459(7249):893.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tumer EC, Brainard MS. Performance variability enables adaptive plasticity of “crystallized” adult birdsong. Nature. 2007 Dec 20;450(7173):1240–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldi C, Cho S, Ellis RE. Mutations in two independent pathways are sufficient to create hermaphroditic nematodes. Science. 2009 Nov 13;326(5955):1002–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
De K, Kasliwal MM, Ofek EO, Moriya TJ, Burke J, Cao Y, et al. A hot and fast ultra-stripped supernova that likely formed a compact neutron star binary. Science. 2018 Oct 12;362(6411):201–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul CR. Transmission Lines in Digital Systems for EMC Practitioners. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Leve FA. Spacecraft Momentum Control Systems. Hamilton BJ, Peck MA, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. (Space Technology Library; vol. 1010).
A chapter in an edited book
Comer TA. The Hidden Architecture of Disability: Chris Ware’s Building Stories. In: Foss C, Gray JW, Whalen Z, editors. Disability in Comic Books and Graphic Narratives. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 44–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HPB.

Blog post
Fang J. Enormous Ocean Discovered On Jupiter’s Moon [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Aeronautics: Impact of Technology Transfer Activities Is Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Mar. Report No.: NSIAD-93-137.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Layer BD. Structured plasma waveguides and deep EUV generation enabled by intense laser-cluster interactions [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Frenkel S, Scott M, Mozur P. Mystery of Motive for a Ransomware Attack: Money, Mayhem or a Message? New York Times. 2017 Jun 28;A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardt 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Tumer and Brainard 2007; Hardt 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tumer and Brainard 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (De et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleHPB
ISSN (print)1365-182X

Other styles