How to format your references using the Geobios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zubairy, M.S., 2007. Physics. Factoring numbers with waves. Science 316, 554–555.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmidt, V., Gösele, U., 2007. Materials science. How nanowires grow. Science 316, 698–699.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feldman, M.W., Lewontin, R.C., King, M.-C., 2003. Race: a genetic melting-pot. Nature 424, 374.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bouillet, P., Purton, J.F., Godfrey, D.I., Zhang, L.-C., Coultas, L., Puthalakath, H., Pellegrini, M., Cory, S., Adams, J.M., Strasser, A., 2002. BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bim is required for apoptosis of autoreactive thymocytes. Nature 415, 922–926.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Neil, P.V., 2008. Beginning Partial Differential Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sobh, T. (Ed.), 2008. Advances in Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Pol, L.G., Thomas, R.K., 2013. Population Composition, in: Thomas, R.K. (Ed.), The Demography of Health and Healthcare: Third Edition, The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 65–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobios.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Biologists Observe Female Homosexual Behavior In Wild Gorillas For The First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. U.S.-Japan Cooperative Development: Progress on FS-X Program Enhances Japanese Aerospace Capabilities (No. NSIAD-95-145). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma, Y., 2013. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. From a Young Life of Crime to Comedy. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zubairy, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Schmidt and Gösele, 2007; Zubairy, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmidt and Gösele, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Bouillet et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobios
ISSN (print)0016-6995
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science

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