How to format your references using the Geobios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stith, J.E., 2000. When I was your age. Nature 407, 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemberger, M., Pedersen, R., 2010. Stem cells. Epigenome disruptors. Science 330, 598–599.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khan, P., Jain, H., Adarsh, K.V., 2014. Role of Ge:As ratio in controlling the light-induced response of a-Ge(x)As(35-x)Se65 thin films. Sci. Rep. 4, 4029.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lazer, D.M.J., Baum, M.A., Benkler, Y., Berinsky, A.J., Greenhill, K.M., Menczer, F., Metzger, M.J., Nyhan, B., Pennycook, G., Rothschild, D., Schudson, M., Sloman, S.A., Sunstein, C.R., Thorson, E.A., Watts, D.J., Zittrain, J.L., 2018. The science of fake news. Science 359, 1094–1096.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hyatt, T.K., Hopkins, B.R., 2013. The Law of Tax-Exempt Healthcare Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kudenko, D., Kazakov, D., Alonso, E. (Eds.), 2005. Adaptive Agents and Multi-Agent Systems II: Adaptation and Multi-Agent Learning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ufuktepe, Ü., Yılmaz, B., 2010. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis with Petri Nets, in: Taniar, D., Gervasi, O., Murgante, B., Pardede, E., Apduhan, B.O. (Eds.), Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2010: International Conference, Fukuoka, Japan, March 23-26, 2010, Proceedings, Part IV, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 53–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobios.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Antibiotic Overuse Might Be Why So Many People Have Allergies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Law Enforcement: Information on the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department Gang Reporting, Evaluation, and Tracking System (No. T-GGD-92-52). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, D., 2017. Numerical Simulation of a Flowfield Around a Hypersonic Missile with Lateral Jets (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2005. New Yorkers in Moscow Follow Stanislavsky’s Path. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stith, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hemberger and Pedersen, 2010; Stith, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hemberger and Pedersen, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Lazer et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobios
ISSN (print)0016-6995
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science

Other styles