How to format your references using the Geobios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beall, J., 2012. Predatory publishers are corrupting open access. Nature 489, 179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dennett-Thorpe, J., de Bruyn, A.G., 2002. Interstellar scintillation as the origin of the rapid radio variability of the quasar J1819+3845. Nature 415, 57–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lykke-Andersen, J., Shu, M.D., Steitz, J.A., 2001. Communication of the position of exon-exon junctions to the mRNA surveillance machinery by the protein RNPS1. Science 293, 1836–1839.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Altamirano, M.M., Blackburn, J.M., Aguayo, C., Fersht, A.R., 2000. Directed evolution of new catalytic activity using the alpha/beta-barrel scaffold. Nature 403, 617–622.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young, M.R., 2013. Financial Fraud Prevention and Detection. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Skorupa, W., Schmidt, H. (Eds.), 2014. Subsecond Annealing of Advanced Materials: Annealing by Lasers, Flash Lamps and Swift Heavy Ions, Springer Series in Materials Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
de Jong, M.T., Verhallen, M.J.A.J., 2013. Video Storybooks: A Way to Empower Children at Risk, in: Shamir, A., Korat, O. (Eds.), Technology as a Support for Literacy Achievements for Children at Risk. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 33–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobios.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. The 41 Most Nutritious Foods On Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Sustained Attention Needed to Improve Education’s Oversight of Grant Programs (No. GAO-10-659T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Donihoo, K., 2017. Best Practices and Strategies Used by Church Leaders to Mitigate and Prevent Burnout Among Church Volunteers (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Changeups Aren’t Part of Washington’s Repertory. New York Times B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beall, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Beall, 2012; Dennett-Thorpe and de Bruyn, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dennett-Thorpe and de Bruyn, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Altamirano et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobios
ISSN (print)0016-6995
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science

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