How to format your references using the Geobios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Struhl, K., 2001. Gene regulation. A paradigm for precision. Science 293, 1054–1055.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis, B.R., Candotti, F., 2010. Genetics. Mosaicism--switch or spectrum? Science 330, 46–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hellberg, M.E., Balch, D.P., Roy, K., 2001. Climate-driven range expansion and morphological evolution in a marine gastropod. Science 292, 1707–1710.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, C.P., Liu, X.J., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R., Ishida, K., 2002. Formation of immiscible alloy powders with egg-type microstructure. Science 297, 990–993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hübschmann, H.-J., 2015. Handbook of GC-MS. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Benesty, J., 2012. Speech Enhancement in the STFT Domain, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Delport, W., Olivier, M.S., 2012. Cloud Separation: Stuck Inside the Cloud, in: Fischer-Hübner, S., Katsikas, S., Quirchmayr, G. (Eds.), Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business: 9th International Conference, TrustBus 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 3-7, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 36–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobios.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Hundreds Of Flying Foxes Cooked Alive In Australia’s Heat Wave [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Advanced Technology Program: Inherent Factors in Selection Process Could Limit Identification of Similar Research (No. RCED-00-114). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burnley, T., 2012. Psychotherapist as Modern-Day Shaman (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herskovic, L., 2017. Who’s That Cat? New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Struhl, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Davis and Candotti, 2010; Struhl, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis and Candotti, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobios
ISSN (print)0016-6995
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science

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