How to format your references using the Geobios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman, J.M., 2000. Obesity in the new millennium. Nature 404, 632–634.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butler, D., Pockley, P., 2000. Monsanto makes rice genome public. Nature 404, 534.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pierce, S.E., Clack, J.A., Hutchinson, J.R., 2012. Three-dimensional limb joint mobility in the early tetrapod Ichthyostega. Nature 486, 523–526.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sakai, H., Honma, T., Aoyama, T., Sato, S., Kato, T., Tabata, S., Oka, A., 2001. ARR1, a transcription factor for genes immediately responsive to cytokinins. Science 294, 1519–1521.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ippolito, L.J., Jr., 2008. Satellite Communications Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kumar, S., 2011. Concrete Fracture Models and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrica, D., Mangra, D., Pintea, C., 2014. Aspects of Global Analysis of Circle-Valued Mappings, in: Rassias, T.M., Tóth, L. (Eds.), Topics in Mathematical Analysis and Applications, Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 79–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobios.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. People Would Rather Experience An Electric Shock Than Be Alone With Their Thoughts [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Telecommunications: Telephone Slamming and Its Harmful Effects (No. OSI-98-10). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rudoy, S.I., 2014. Developing a model for understanding mindfulness as a potential intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L., 2009. Riding the Oil Market, Calgary Builds Up. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Butler and Pockley, 2000; Friedman, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butler and Pockley, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Sakai et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobios
ISSN (print)0016-6995
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science

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