How to format your references using the Geobios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tobalske, B.W., 2009. Evolution. Symmetry in turns. Science 324, 190–191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Derynck, R., Zhang, Y.E., 2003. Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-beta family signalling. Nature 425, 577–584.
A journal article with 3 authors
Percec, V., Ungar, G., Peterca, M., 2006. Chemistry. Self-assembly in action. Science 313, 55–56.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, Y., Rigdon, W., Huang, X., Li, X., 2013. Enhancing graphene reinforcing potential in composites by hydrogen passivation induced dispersion. Sci. Rep. 3, 2086.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen, M., 2010. Mind Games. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Wilson, T.L., 2013. Tools of Radio Astronomy, 6th ed. 2013. ed, Astronomy and Astrophysics Library. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wohlers, T.E., Bernier, L.L., 2016. Germany, in: Bernier, L.L. (Ed.), Setting Sail into the Age of Digital Local Government: Trends and Best Practices. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobios.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Hundreds Of Puffins In Alaska Are The Latest Victims Of Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Occupant Crash Protection (No. OGC-00-32). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reitz, M.A., 2016. Nonlinear Robust Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors With Applications to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B Y Robert Kelly;, who teaches at Bard College, is a Poet Whose, Music, ’ ’not This Island, ’ ’ Will be Published, 1986. A LOVE AFFAIR WITH SILENCE. New York Times 721.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tobalske, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Derynck and Zhang, 2003; Tobalske, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Derynck and Zhang, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobios
ISSN (print)0016-6995
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science

Other styles