How to format your references using the Geo-Marine Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geo-Marine Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Degen M (2003) Europe draws up plans for funding agency. Nature 421:881
A journal article with 2 authors
Politi Y, Weaver JC (2015) Biomineralization. Built for tough conditions. Science 347:712–713
A journal article with 3 authors
Medina JF, Nores WL, Mauk MD (2002) Inhibition of climbing fibres is a signal for the extinction of conditioned eyelid responses. Nature 416:330–333
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jomelli V, Khodri M, Favier V, et al (2011) Irregular tropical glacier retreat over the Holocene epoch driven by progressive warming. Nature 474:196–199

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rees PA (2011) An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kimmel R, Klette R, Sugimoto A (eds) (2011) Computer Vision – ACCV 2010: 10th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Queenstown, New Zealand, November 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chittenden F, Iancich S, Sloan B (2009) Techniques Available for Estimating the Impact of Regulations. In: Nijsen A, Hudson J, Müller C, et al. (eds) Business Regulation and Public Policy: The Costs and Benefits of Compliance. Springer, New York, NY, pp 1–17

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geo-Marine Letters.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Why Is The Sun’s Atmosphere So Much Hotter Than Its Surface? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Mass Transit: “Mobility Improvements” Is One of Many Factors Used to Evaluate Mass Transit Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Friedlander MB (2014) Limited Sight Distance. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY J, Mueller B (2015) Glimpses Inside Secretive Sect After Teenager’s Fatal Beating. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Degen 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Degen 2003; Politi and Weaver 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Politi and Weaver 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Jomelli et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeo-Marine Letters
AbbreviationGeo-Mar. Lett.
ISSN (print)0276-0460
ISSN (online)1432-1157
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

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