How to format your references using the Geo-Marine Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geo-Marine Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baldauf SL (2003) The deep roots of eukaryotes. Science 300:1703–1706
A journal article with 2 authors
Perner J, Ruffman T (2005) Psychology. Infants’ insight into the mind: how deep? Science 308:214–216
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt AR, Dörfelt H, Perrichot V (2007) Carnivorous fungi from Cretaceous amber. Science 318:1743
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cong C, Li K, Zhang XX, Yu T (2013) Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM. Sci Rep 3:1195

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yalaoui A, Chehade H, Yalaoui F, Amodeo L (2012) Optimization of Logistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hötzl H, Möller P, Rosenthal E (eds) (2009) The Water of the Jordan Valley: Scarcity and Deterioration of Groundwater and its Impact on the Regional Development. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Matsuura K (2009) Productivity Space of Information Security in an Extension of the Gordon-Loeb’s InvestmentModel. In: Johnson ME (ed) Managing Information Risk and the Economics of Security. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 99–119

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geo-Marine Letters.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Why Do Young Lizards Have Blue Tails? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Preserving the Interstate System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Penney G (2010) Executive Fire Officers’ strategic thinking capabilities and their relationship with information and communication technology. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Reed S, de la MERCED MJ (2017) London and New York Duke It Out For $2 Trillion Saudi Aramco Listing. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baldauf 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Baldauf 2003; Perner and Ruffman 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Perner and Ruffman 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Cong et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeo-Marine Letters
AbbreviationGeo-Mar. Lett.
ISSN (print)0276-0460
ISSN (online)1432-1157
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

Other styles