How to format your references using the Geo-Marine Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geo-Marine Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexandrov LB (2015) Understanding the origins of human cancer. Science 350:1175
A journal article with 2 authors
Montagner JP, Ritsema J (2001) Geology. Interactions between ridges and plumes. Science 294:1472–1473
A journal article with 3 authors
Naeem S, Duffy JE, Zavaleta E (2012) The functions of biological diversity in an age of extinction. Science 336:1401–1406
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Di Martino D, Beverina L, Sassi M, et al (2014) Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes. Sci Rep 4:4400

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz ER, Belfort MA, Saade GR, Miller H (2010) Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Volkov AG (ed) (2012) Plant Electrophysiology: Methods and Cell Electrophysiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Wang X, Xie Z, Guan X (2011) Risk Assessment Based on the Life Cycle of Virtual Enterprise. In: Dai M (ed) Innovative Computing and Information: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 21–28

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geo-Marine Letters.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Scientists Identify Genetic Difference Between Early Risers And Late Sleepers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Surface Infrastructure: Review of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority’s Restructuring Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packman T (2017) The Effects of Eccentricity on Rectangular Hollow Structural Section Stress in Moment Connections Loaded Out-of-Plane. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2013) Where Are the Yankees I Loved to Hate? New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alexandrov 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Montagner and Ritsema 2001; Alexandrov 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Montagner and Ritsema 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Di Martino et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeo-Marine Letters
AbbreviationGeo-Mar. Lett.
ISSN (print)0276-0460
ISSN (online)1432-1157
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

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