How to format your references using the Geo-Marine Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geo-Marine Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matthews BW (2000) Paul Sigler (1934-2000). Nature 403:848
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenberg SM, Queitsch C (2014) Medicine. Combating evolution to fight disease. Science 343:1088–1089
A journal article with 3 authors
Batson PE, Dellby N, Krivanek OL (2002) Sub-ångstrom resolution using aberration corrected electron optics. Nature 418:617–620
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang A, Mu H, Zhang W, et al (2013) Chitosan coupling makes microbial biofilms susceptible to antibiotics. Sci Rep 3:3364

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tattar PN, Ramaiah S, Manjunath BG (2016) A Course in Statistics With R. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sackmann R (2015) Coping with Demographic Change: A Comparative View on Education and Local Government in Germany and Poland. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Vitousek P, Beamer K (2013) Traditional Ecological Values, Knowledge, and Practices in Twenty-First Century Hawai‘i. In: Rozzi R, Pickett STA, Palmer C, et al. (eds) Linking Ecology and Ethics for a Changing World: Values, Philosophy, and Action. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 63–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geo-Marine Letters.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Mummy CT Scans Show That Pharaohs Were Misdiagnosed. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Electromagnetic Interference with Medical Devices. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shendge PN (2017) Improvement in Estimation of Carrier Frequency Offset in Wireless Networks. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS (2013) Car Chase, White House To Capitol, Has Fatal End. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matthews 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Matthews 2000; Rosenberg and Queitsch 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rosenberg and Queitsch 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeo-Marine Letters
AbbreviationGeo-Mar. Lett.
ISSN (print)0276-0460
ISSN (online)1432-1157
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

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