How to format your references using the Geo-Marine Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geo-Marine Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxted PFL (2006) Astronomy. A ghostly star revealed in silhouette. Science 314:1550–1551
A journal article with 2 authors
Jensen K, Murray F (2005) Intellectual property. Enhanced: intellectual property landscape of the human genome. Science 310:239–240
A journal article with 3 authors
Pettifer RF, Collins SP, Laundy D (2008) Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy. Nature 454:196–199
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Higashi H, Tsutsumi R, Muto S, et al (2002) SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase as an intracellular target of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein. Science 295:683–686

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker KR (2011) Optimization Modeling with Spreadsheets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Goel AK, Jamnik M, Narayanan NH (eds) (2010) Diagrammatic Representation and Inference: 6th International Conference, Diagrams 2010, Portland, OR, USA, August 9-11, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hackx M, Gevenois PA (2016) CT Imaging of the Airways. In: Schoepf UJ, Meinel FG (eds) Multidetector-Row CT of the Thorax. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 71–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geo-Marine Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Film Rare Sperm Whale Encounter 600 Meters Below The Gulf Of Mexico. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Activities of the Economic Opportunities Development Corporation of San Antonio and Bexar County, Texas. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez A (2012) Impact of the Child and Family Services Improvement Act of 2006 on monthly caseworker visits to children in Los Angeles County on California’s foster care system. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2017) Sorting a Comic’s Library of Laughs (and Letters and Bills and …). New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxted 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Jensen and Murray 2005; Maxted 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jensen and Murray 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Higashi et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeo-Marine Letters
AbbreviationGeo-Mar. Lett.
ISSN (print)0276-0460
ISSN (online)1432-1157
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

Other styles