How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Design and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Design and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sawyer, R. J. (2000). The abdication of Pope Mary III...or Galileo’s revenge. Nature, 406(6791), 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trenberth, K. E., & Fasullo, J. T. (2010). Climate change. Tracking Earth’s energy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5976), 316–317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tagkopoulos, I., Liu, Y.-C., & Tavazoie, S. (2008). Predictive behavior within microbial genetic networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5881), 1313–1317.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lu, W., Ji, Z., Pfeiffer, L., West, K. W., & Rimberg, A. J. (2003). Real-time detection of electron tunnelling in a quantum dot. Nature, 423(6938), 422–425.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aasma, A., Dutta, H., & Natarajan, P. N. (2017). An Introductory Course in Summability Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhou, M. (Ed.). (2011). Education and Management: International Symposium, ISAEBD 2011, Dalian, China, August 6-7, 2011, Proceedings, Part III (Vol. 210). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Galatchi, L.-D., & Tudor, M. (2006). EUROPE AS A SOURCE OF POLLUTION – THE MAIN FACTOR FOR THE EUTROPHICATION OF THE DANUBE DELTA AND BLACK SEA. In L. Simeonov & E. Chirila (Eds.), Chemicals as Intentional and Accidental Global Environmental Threats (pp. 57–63). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Design and Engineering.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 9). Scientists Plan to Spy on Sharks Using Camera Traps. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs Additional Knowledge as it Embarks on a New Approach for Transformational Satellite Communications System (GAO-06-537). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reich, J. C. (2010). An iterative feature perturbation method for gene selection from microarray data [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson, L. (2012, September 9). Long Divisions. New York Times, BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sawyer, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sawyer, 2000; Trenberth & Fasullo, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trenberth & Fasullo, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Tagkopoulos et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lu et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Design and Engineering
ISSN (print)2288-4300

Other styles