How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Design and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Design and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mattick, J. S. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. The genomic foundation is shifting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6019), 874.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moënne-Loccoz, P., & Fee, J. A. (2010). Biochemistry. Catalyzing NO to N2O in the nitrogen cycle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6011), 1632–1633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cram, D. S., Song, B., & Trounson, A. O. (2007). Genotyping of Rhesus SCNT pluripotent stem cell lines. Nature, 450(7169), E12-4.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Erickson, G. M., Currie, P. J., Inouye, B. D., & Winn, A. A. (2006). Tyrannosaur life tables: an example of nonavian dinosaur population biology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5784), 213–217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Orford, J. (2012). Addiction Dilemmas. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zeng, R. (Ed.). (2016). Graphics-sequenced interpretation of ECG (1st ed. 2016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Uustalu, T., & Vene, V. (2006). The Essence of Dataflow Programming. In Z. Horváth (Ed.), Central European Functional Programming School: First Summer School, CEFP 2005, Budapest, Hungary, July 4-15, 2005, Revised Selected Lectures (pp. 135–167). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Design and Engineering.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, April 30). Rubella Has Officially Been Eradicated From The Americas. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Progress Made in Accelerating Federal Purchases, but Benefits and Costs Remain Uncertain (RCED-94-161). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jenkins, A. K. (2008). Satisfaction and organizational commitment of civilian engineers and scientists in United States naval acquisition [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, T. (1999, May 20). A Consultant Reports a Flaw In Ebay’s Web Site Security. New York Times, G3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mattick, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Mattick, 2011; Moënne-Loccoz & Fee, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moënne-Loccoz & Fee, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Cram et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Erickson et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Design and Engineering
ISSN (print)2288-4300

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