How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Design and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Design and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harley, D. (2013). Scholarly communication: cultural contexts, evolving models. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6154), 80–82.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kormendy, J., & Bender, R. (2011). Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies. Nature, 469(7330), 377–380.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foster, S. L., Hargreaves, D. C., & Medzhitov, R. (2007). Gene-specific control of inflammation by TLR-induced chromatin modifications. Nature, 447(7147), 972–978.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ikuta, J., Kamisetty, N. K., Shintaku, H., Kotera, H., Kon, T., & Yokokawa, R. (2014). Tug-of-war of microtubule filaments at the boundary of a kinesin- and dynein-patterned surface. Scientific Reports, 4, 5281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simpkins, A. M., & Simpkins, C. A. (2010). Meditation and Yoga in Psychotherapy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Weist, M. D., Lever, N. A., Bradshaw, C. P., & Owens, J. S. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of School Mental Health: Research, Training, Practice, and Policy (2nd ed. 2014). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Mattox, A., Li, J., Di, C., & Adamson, D. C. (2012). Medulloblastoma: Role of OTX2 Transcription Factors. In M. A. Hayat (Ed.), Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 8: Astrocytoma, Medulloblastoma, Retinoblastoma, Chordoma, Craniopharyngioma, Oligodendroglioma, and Ependymoma (pp. 47–58). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Design and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 21). Sustainability Science Is A New Academic Discipline. But Is It Sustainable? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Public Transit: Challenges Funding, Investing in Systems, and Coordinating Services (GAO-14-278T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McDuffie, C. A. (2017). Melodies of intervention: Music therapy for transitional-age youth: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. (2017, October 20). Protests Disrupt Commerce in St. Louis, and Regional Leaders Take Notice. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harley, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Harley, 2013; Kormendy & Bender, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kormendy & Bender, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Foster et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ikuta et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Design and Engineering
ISSN (print)2288-4300

Other styles