How to format your references using the Genome Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Goldston D. Small advances. Nature. 2007;450:1141.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sheppard SS, Trujillo CA. A thick cloud of Neptune Trojans and their colors. Science. 2006;313:511–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Willner AE, Wang J, Huang H. Applied physics. A different angle on light communications. Science. 2012;337:655–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Huang C, Rajfur Z, Borchers C, Schaller MD, Jacobson K. JNK phosphorylates paxillin and regulates cell migration. Nature. 2003;424:219–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Heuer A. Der perfekte Tipp. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
1. Anttila S, Boffetta P, editors. Occupational Cancers. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rummler GA, Ramias AJ. A Framework for Defining and Designing the Structure of Work. In: vom Brocke J, Rosemann M, editors. Handbook on Business Process Management 1: Introduction, Methods, and Information Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 81–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Biology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Primitive Meteorites Brought Water To Early Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Performance Appraisal Information From Selected Federal Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Oct. Report No.: GGD-86-1.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hughes LL. The principalship: Preparation programs and the self-efficacy of principals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Going After Big Prey. New York Times. 2017 Jul 19;BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Biology
ISSN (online)1474-760X
Scope

Other styles