How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pines, D. 2000. “Science-Based Security under Threat.” Nature 407 (6803): 447–448.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouziat, Romain, and Bana Jabri. 2015. “IMMUNOLOGY. Breaching the Gut-Vascular Barrier.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6262): 742–743.
A journal article with 3 authors
Toyoshima, Chikashi, Hiromi Nomura, and Takeo Tsuda. 2004. “Lumenal Gating Mechanism Revealed in Calcium Pump Crystal Structures with Phosphate Analogues.” Nature 432 (7015): 361–368.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Palmer, M. A., E. S. Bernhardt, W. H. Schlesinger, K. N. Eshleman, E. Foufoula-Georgiou, M. S. Hendryx, A. D. Lemly, et al. 2010. “Science and Regulation. Mountaintop Mining Consequences.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5962): 148–149.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt, Ronald H., and Gary E. Rodrick. 2005. Food Safety Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pineda, Jaime A., ed. 2009. Mirror Neuron Systems: The Role of Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition. Contemporary Neuroscience. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Watanabe, Masaki. 2008. “Palm Vein Authentication.” In Advances in Biometrics: Sensors, Algorithms and Systems, edited by Nalini K. Ratha and Venu Govindaraju, 75–88. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Philosophy.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Watch These Droplets Of Water Get Blown Up By A Laser.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Public Transportation: Washington Metro Could Benefit from Clarified Board Roles and Responsibilities, Improved Strategic Planning. GAO-11-660. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanute, Pierce J. 2012. “What Power? A Mixed Methods Study of Nonformal Education Teacher Perceptions of Social Power.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2011. “The Burden Of Pensions On States.” New York Times, March 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pines 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pines 2000; Bouziat and Jabri 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouziat and Jabri 2015)
  • Three authors: (Toyoshima, Nomura, and Tsuda 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Palmer et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Philosophy
AbbreviationCan. J. Philos.
ISSN (print)0045-5091
ISSN (online)1911-0820

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