How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodson, Richard. 2015. “Small Organ, Big Reach.” Nature 528 (7582): S118-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domokos, Gábor, and István Scheuring. 2002. “Random Perturbations and Lattice Effects in Chaotic Population Dynamics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5590): 2163; discussion 2163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gambardella, Alessandro, Mirko Prezioso, and Massimiliano Cavallini. 2014. “Tunnel Conductivity Switching in a Single Nanoparticle-Based Nano Floating Gate Memory.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 4196.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Terabe, K., T. Hasegawa, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono. 2005. “Quantized Conductance Atomic Switch.” Nature 433 (7021): 47–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garber, Richard. 2014. BIM Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tomashefski, Joseph F., Philip T. Cagle, Carol F. Farver, and Armando E. Fraire, eds. 2008. Dail and Hammar’s Pulmonary Pathology: Volume I: Nonneoplastic Lung Disease. Third Edition. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosenhan, Claudia. 2016. “‘That Learning Were Such a Filthy Thing’: Education, Literacy and Social Control in Huxley’s Brave New World.” In “Brave New World”: Contexts and Legacies, edited by Jonathan Greenberg and Nathan Waddell, 51–68. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Philosophy.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “This Interactive Map Shows Where People With HIV Live In The US — And It Points To Some Distressing Trends.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Freight Railroad Safety: Hours of Service Changes Have Increased Rest Time, but More Can Be Done to Address Fatigue Risks. GAO-11-853. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hantgan, Abbie. 2013. “Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gardiner, Kelly. 2016. “Sing, Memory.” New York Times, February 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hodson 2015; Domokos and Scheuring 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domokos and Scheuring 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gambardella, Prezioso, and Cavallini 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Terabe et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Philosophy
AbbreviationCan. J. Philos.
ISSN (print)0045-5091
ISSN (online)1911-0820

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