How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, Colin. 2010. “World View: ERA of Austerity.” Nature 466 (7304): 314.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schaff, David P., and Paul G. Richards. 2004. “Repeating Seismic Events in China.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5661): 1176–1178.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, John R., R. A. Outlaw, and B. C. Holloway. 2010. “Graphene Double-Layer Capacitor with Ac Line-Filtering Performance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5999): 1637–1639.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dong, Min, Felix Yeh, William H. Tepp, Camin Dean, Eric A. Johnson, Roger Janz, and Edwin R. Chapman. 2006. “SV2 Is the Protein Receptor for Botulinum Neurotoxin A.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5773): 592–596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, Allan W., and Rex Frobenius. 2008. RF Measurements for Cellular Phones and Wireless Data Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Berri, Hala Mohammed. 2016. ADHD in Lebanese Schools: Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment. Edited by Anies Al-Hroub. 1st ed. 2016. SpringerBriefs in Psychology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Huber, Ludwig, Friederike Range, and Zsófia Virányi. 2014. “Dog Imitation and Its Possible Origins.” In Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior: The Scientific Study of Canis Familiaris, edited by Alexandra Horowitz, 79–100. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Philosophy.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Hubble Captures Image Of Galactic Merger.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. GSA Lease Prospectuses Provide a Reasonable Basis for the Congress To Approve Proposed Space Acquisitions. LCD-80-44. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, Yi. 2005. “Studies on Error Control of 3-D Zerotree Wavelet Video Streaming.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2005. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Last Regional Governor’s Election.” New York Times, January 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2010; Schaff and Richards 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schaff and Richards 2004)
  • Three authors: (Miller, Outlaw, and Holloway 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dong et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Philosophy
AbbreviationCan. J. Philos.
ISSN (print)0045-5091
ISSN (online)1911-0820

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