How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Segre, Julia A. 2015. “MICROBIOME. Microbial Growth Dynamics and Human Disease.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6252): 1058–1059.
A journal article with 2 authors
Povolotskaya, Inna S., and Fyodor A. Kondrashov. 2010. “Sequence Space and the Ongoing Expansion of the Protein Universe.” Nature 465 (7300): 922–926.
A journal article with 3 authors
Menz, Myles H. M., Kingsley W. Dixon, and Richard J. Hobbs. 2013. “Ecology. Hurdles and Opportunities for Landscape-Scale Restoration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6119): 526–527.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gylfe, A., S. Bergström, J. Lundström, and B. Olsen. 2000. “Reactivation of Borrelia Infection in Birds.” Nature 403 (6771): 724–725.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misstear, Bruce, David Banks, and Lewis Clark. 2006. Water Wells and Boreholes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hoe, Lieven Van. 2006. MR Cholangiopancreatography: Atlas with Cross-Sectional Imaging Correlation. Edited by Dirk Vanbeckevoort, Koen Mermuys, and Werner Van Steenbergen. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ashraf, Shabbir, and Mohammad Zuhaib. 2013. “Fungal Biodiversity: A Potential Tool in Plant Disease Management.” In Management of Microbial Resources in the Environment, edited by Abdul Malik, Elisabeth Grohmann, and Madalena Alves, 69–90. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Woman May Have Contracted HIV From Sharing Manicure Equipment.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Energy Research and Development Administration’s Contingency Plan for Constructing Additional Enrichment Capacity at Portsmouth, Ohio. RED-76-55. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trinooson, Thanathep E. 2010. “CFD Investigations of a Round Jet with Coil Insert in Crossflow.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina, Ian. 2016. “A Model for ‘Clean Coal’ Goes Awry.” New York Times, July 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Segre 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Segre 2015; Povolotskaya and Kondrashov 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Povolotskaya and Kondrashov 2010)
  • Three authors: (Menz, Dixon, and Hobbs 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gylfe et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Philosophy
AbbreviationCan. J. Philos.
ISSN (print)0045-5091
ISSN (online)1911-0820

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