How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger, Karen. 2002. “Private Foundations Push for Higher Postdoc Salaries.” Nature 415 (6868): 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis, Charles C., and Kenneth J. Wurdack. 2004. “Host-to-Parasite Gene Transfer in Flowering Plants: Phylogenetic Evidence from Malpighiales.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5684): 676–678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kearns, Michael, Siddharth Suri, and Nick Montfort. 2006. “An Experimental Study of the Coloring Problem on Human Subject Networks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5788): 824–827.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Harrington, Joseph, Statia Luszcz, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, and L. Jeremy Richardson. 2007. “The Hottest Planet.” Nature 447 (7145): 691–693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cicek, Volkan. 2017. Corrosion Engineering and Cathodic Protection Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chichilnisky, Graciela, and Armon Rezai, eds. 2016. The Economics of the Global Environment: Catastrophic Risks in Theory and Policy. Vol. 29. Studies in Economic Theory. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Blance, Andrew. 2012. “Multilevel Modelling.” In Modern Methods for Epidemiology, edited by Yu-Kang Tu and Darren C. Greenwood, 73–91. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “We Are Lucky To Live In A Universe Made For Us.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Social Security Administration: Internet Access to Personal Earnings and Benefits Information. T-AIMD/HEHS-97-123. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, Emilee J. 2013. “Older Americans Act of 1965, Title III: A Policy Analysis.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. “Justices Reject Appeal in Tobacco Case.” New York Times, October 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kreeger 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kreeger 2002; Davis and Wurdack 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis and Wurdack 2004)
  • Three authors: (Kearns, Suri, and Montfort 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Harrington et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Philosophy
AbbreviationCan. J. Philos.
ISSN (print)0045-5091
ISSN (online)1911-0820

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