How to format your references using the Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. H. Kopetz, Nature 494, 29 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. J. de Graaf and L. Manna, Science 337, 417 (2012).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. D. Helbing, I. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature 407, 487 (2000).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. C. Scott, T. W. Lyons, A. Bekker, Y. Shen, S. W. Poulton, X. Chu, and A. D. Anbar, Nature 452, 456 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. S. Stahl, Real Analysis (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011).
An edited book
1. K. C. Donnelly and L. H. Cizmas, editors , Environmental Health in Central and Eastern Europe (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006).
A chapter in an edited book
1. S. S. Agrawal and R. M. Samant, in Technology Systems and Management: First International Conference, ICTSM 2011, Mumbai, India, February 25-27, 2011. Selected Papers, edited by K. Shah, V. R. Lakshmi Gorty, and A. Phirke (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011), pp. 27–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines.

Blog post
1. E. Andrew, IFLScience (2015).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Export Controls: NASA Management Action and Improved Oversight Needed to Reduce the Risk of Unauthorized Access to Its Technologies (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. N. D. Sarantopoulos, The Relationship between Values and Leadership Styles of Nonprofit Leaders, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. M. M. Grynbaum and E. Steel, New York Times B1 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenetic Programming and Evolvable Machines
AbbreviationGenet. Program. Evolvable Mach.
ISSN (print)1389-2576
ISSN (online)1573-7632
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Software
Theoretical Computer Science

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