How to format your references using the Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. R. Versteeg, Nature 506, 438 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. L. Laanisto and M. J. Hutchings, Science 350, 1177 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. L. Tosi, P. Teatini, and T. Strozzi, Sci. Rep. 3, 2710 (2013).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. S. Yamaguchi, M. Kobayashi, S. Mitsui, Y. Ishida, G. T. van der Horst, M. Suzuki, S. Shibata, and H. Okamura, Nature 409, 684 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. J. Peat, E. Elliott, L. Baur, and V. Keena, Scientific Writing Easy When You Know How (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., London, WC, 2002).
An edited book
1. P. Wooding, Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and Evolution (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008).
A chapter in an edited book
1. D. Chafaï and F. Malrieu, in Recueil de Modèles Aléatoires, edited by F. Malrieu (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016), pp. 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines.

Blog post
1. E. Andrew, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Commercial Space Launches: FAA’s Risk Assessment Process Is Not Yet Updated (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. S. L. Ellerbrook, Exploring the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Teacher Selection Tools: The Effects on the Total Group with a Focus on the Gender Sub-Groups, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. J. Koblin, New York Times B5 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenetic Programming and Evolvable Machines
AbbreviationGenet. Program. Evolvable Mach.
ISSN (print)1389-2576
ISSN (online)1573-7632
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

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