How to format your references using the General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mango SE. Ageing: generations of longevity. Nature. 2011;479:302–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Azam F, Worden AZ. Oceanography. Microbes, molecules, and marine ecosystems. Science. 2004;303:1622–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Blumenstock J, Cadamuro G, On R. Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata. Science. 2015;350:1073–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Li Y, Samad YA, Polychronopoulou K, Alhassan SM, Liao K. Highly electrically conductive nanocomposites based on polymer-infused graphene sponges. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4652.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smith IM, Griffiths DV, Margetts L. Programming the Finite Element Method. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Jin D, Lin S, editors. Advances in Electronic Engineering, Communication and Management Vol.1: Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Electronic Engineering, Communication and Management(EECM 2011), held on December 24-25, 2011, Beijing, China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Geller B. The Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina, Police Department. In: Ivković SK, Haberfeld MR, editors. Enhancing Police Integrity. New York, NY: Springer; 2006. p. 83–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists sequence DNA of 400,000 year old ancient human. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Committing Prematurely to the Transformational Satellite Program Elevates Risks for Poor Cost, Schedule, and Performance Outcomes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Dec. Report No.: GAO-04-71R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Deise EC. Frame problems, Fodor’s challenge, and practical reason [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Russia Inaugurates Book Prize. It’s Big. New York Times. 2006 Nov 23;E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationGen. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-6705
ISSN (online)1863-6713
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Surgery

Other styles