How to format your references using the General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fenchel T. Microbial behavior in a heterogeneous world. Science. 2002;296:1068–71.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Castro JM, Dingwell DB. Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitén volcano, Chile. Nature. 2009;461:780–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wilson AM, Watson JC, Lichtwark GA. Biomechanics: A catapult action for rapid limb protraction. Nature. 2003;421:35–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mizutani R, Shimizu Y, Saiga R, Ueno G, Nakamura Y, Takeuchi A, et al. Spatiotemporal development of soaked protein crystal. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5731.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Harrison RG. Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Vázquez E, editor. Progress of Recycling in the Built Environment: Final report of the RILEM Technical Committee 217-PRE. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wiśniewski T, Korytkowski P. Identification of an Assessment Model for Evaluating Performance of a Manufacturing System Based on Experts Opinions. In: Katarzyniak R, Chiu T-F, Hong C-F, Nguyen NT, editors. Semantic Methods for Knowledge Management and Communication. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Alcoholism Treatment May Bring HIV Out Of Hiding [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs to Implement an Effective Testing Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Sep. Report No.: IMTEC-89-62.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Knudsen E. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder empowerment program: A grant project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. From a Bitter War Defeat Comes Russia’s Latest Blockbuster Action Movie. New York Times. 2005 Oct 29;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationGen. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-6705
ISSN (online)1863-6713
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles