How to format your references using the General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rowe D. Sustainability. Education for a sustainable future. Science. 2007;317:323–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Paerl HW, Huisman J. Climate. Blooms like it hot. Science. 2008;320:57–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Farkas I, Helbing D, Vicsek T. Mexican waves in an excitable medium. Nature. 2002;419:131–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ramanathan V, Crutzen PJ, Kiehl JT, Rosenfeld D. Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science. 2001;294:2119–24.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sobel A. All for One. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Winer JA, Schreiner CE, editors. The Inferior Colliculus. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ugurlu T, Zeitler A, Kheyrollahi A. HttpClient. In: Zeitler A, Kheyrollahi A, editors. Pro ASPNET Web API: HTTP Web Services in ASPNET. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013. p. 75–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Potential For A Male Contraceptive Is One Step Closer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/potential-for-a-male-contraceptive-is-one-step-closer/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2008 Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Nov. Report No.: GAO-09-91R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ramirez M. Support groups for caregivers of older adults with end stage renal disease: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shear MD, Stolberg SG. President Meets With McConnell, Like Old Friends. New York Times. 2017 Oct 16;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationGen. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-6705
ISSN (online)1863-6713
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Surgery

Other styles