How to format your references using the General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Macilwain C. Charm, not tact, aided pioneer in fight for physics. Nature. 2000;403:586–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chen X, Tung K-K. Climate. Varying planetary heat sink led to global-warming slowdown and acceleration. Science. 2014;345:897–903.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Quinto-Su PA, Suzuki M, Ohl C-D. Fast temperature measurement following single laser-induced cavitation inside a microfluidic gap. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5445.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Toh RJ, Peng WK, Han J, Pumera M. Direct in vivo electrochemical detection of haemoglobin in red blood cells. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Prutchi D, Norris M. Design and Development of Medical Electronic Instrumentation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Fan Y, Fisher G, editors. Solar Flare Magnetic Fields and Plasmas. New York, NY: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kruse T, Sun EW. News Trader, Liquidity and Transaction Cost. In: Dufrénot G, Jawadi F, Louhichi W, editors. Market Microstructure and Nonlinear Dynamics: Keeping Financial Crisis in Context. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 95–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. The Prime Meridian Line In Greenwich Is In The Wrong Place [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Grant Funds to Eisenhower College. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Mar. Report No.: GGD-77-47.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Schmittel M. The Children First Foundation Parenting Education Program: A Study on the Effectiveness of a Divorce Parenting Education Program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Honor a Literary Giant, But Be Careful Where. New York Times. 2008 Sep 26;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationGen. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-6705
ISSN (online)1863-6713
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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