How to format your references using the IZA Journal of Migration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of Migration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trenberth KE. Changes in tropical clouds and radiation. Science. 2002 Jun 21;296(5576):2095.
A journal article with 2 authors
Laughlin SB, Sejnowski TJ. Communication in neuronal networks. Science. 2003 Sep 26;301(5641):1870–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conard NJ, Malina M, Münzel SC. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany. Nature. 2009 Aug 6;460(7256):737–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kashiwaya K, Ochiai S, Sakai H, Kawai T. Orbit-related long-term climate cycles revealed in a 12-Myr continental record from Lake Baikal. Nature. 2001 Mar 1;410(6824):71–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips JJ, Trotter WD, Phillips PP. Maximizing the Value of Consulting. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Curiel DT, Douglas JT, editors. Cancer Gene Therapy. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Antony PJ. Usman and Khadeeja. In: Antony PJ, editor. Segregation Hurts: Voices of Youth with Disabilities and Their Families in India. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013. p. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of Migration.

Blog post
Andrews R. Clean Energy Sources Provided Up To 50% Of The UK’s Electricity This Summer. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1991. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Dec. Report No.: RCED-93-50.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson LL. Of Hell and High Water: Longitudinal Case Studies of the Internal and External Recovery Efforts of Non-Governmental Organizations after Hurricane Katrina [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. European Leaders Debate Proposals for Closer Military Ties. New York Times. 2016 Sep 16;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trenberth 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Laughlin and Sejnowski 2003; Trenberth 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Laughlin and Sejnowski 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kashiwaya et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of Migration
ISSN (online)2193-9039

Other styles