How to format your references using the IZA Journal of Migration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of Migration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian AC. Astronomy. Variable high-energy gamma rays from the elliptical galaxy M87. Science. 2006 Dec 1;314(5804):1398–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strome S, Lehmann R. Germ versus soma decisions: lessons from flies and worms. Science. 2007 Apr 20;316(5823):392–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley RS, Hughes MK, Diaz HF. Climate change. Climate in Medieval time. Science. 2003 Oct 17;302(5644):404–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Takayama S, Shimosato H, Shiba H, Funato M, Che FS, Watanabe M, et al. Direct ligand-receptor complex interaction controls Brassica self-incompatibility. Nature. 2001 Oct 4;413(6855):534–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris A. A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Duch W, Kacprzyk J, Oja E, Zadrożny S, editors. Artificial Neural Networks: Formal Models and Their Applications – ICANN 2005: 15th International Conference, Warsaw, Poland, September 11-15, 2005. Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Alexandrino MM, Bettiol RG. Polar Foliations. In: Bettiol RG, editor. Lie Groups and Geometric Aspects of Isometric Actions. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 109–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of Migration.

Blog post
Carpineti C. Watch How These Elephants Respond To A Swarm Of Bees [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology Reform: Progress Made; More Needs to Be Done to Complete Actions and Measure Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 May. Report No.: GAO-12-745T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moshfegh N. The multidimensional wellbeing assessment: Preliminary validation in an Iranian sample [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B. Where the Party Moves From Room to Room. New York Times. 2016 Sep 29;D9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fabian 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Fabian 2006; Strome and Lehmann 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strome and Lehmann 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Takayama et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of Migration
ISSN (online)2193-9039

Other styles