How to format your references using the IZA Journal of Migration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of Migration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Held I. Climate change. Simplicity amid complexity. Science. 2014 Mar 14;343(6176):1206–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith G, Smolin JA. An exactly solvable model for quantum communications. Nature. 2013 Dec 12;504(7479):263–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma BR, Manjanath A, Singh AK. Pentahexoctite: a new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon. Sci. Rep. 2014 Nov 24;4:7164.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen G, Seki Y, Kimura H, Sakurai S, Yumura M, Hata K, et al. Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotube forests from 1.3-3.0 nm by arc plasma deposition. Sci. Rep. 2014 Jan 22;4:3804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE technical manual. Dow’s Chemical Exposure Index Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
Siva A, Lampl C, editors. Case-Based Diagnosis and Management of Headache Disorders. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Razzaghi M. Hybrid Functions Approach for Variational Problems and Optimal Control of Delay Systems. In: El-Osery A, Prevost J, editors. Control and Systems Engineering: A Report on Four Decades of Contributions. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 67–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of Migration.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Ancient Asteroid Impacts Yield Evidence For The Nature Of The Early Earth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Internal Control Weaknesses in Army Safeguarding of Computer Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 May. Report No.: AFMD-92-60ML.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perez RW. Stepping Stone or Stumbling Block? The Impact of Prior Military Service on Hiring Managers’ Perceptions of Warmth, Competence, and Hirability [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Harper’s Return Gives Nationals a Timely Boost. New York Times. 2017 Sep 27;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Held 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Held 2014; Smith and Smolin 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Smolin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of Migration
ISSN (online)2193-9039

Other styles