How to format your references using the Fusion Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fusion Science and Technology (FST). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. DE DUVE, “The joy of discovery,” Nature 467 7317, S5 (2010).
A journal article with 2 authors
M. CARUTHERS and R. WELLS, “Retrospective. Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011),” Science 334 6062, 1511 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
P. CHADDERTON, T. W. MARGRIE, and M. HÄUSSER, “Integration of quanta in cerebellar granule cells during sensory processing,” Nature 428 6985, 856 (2004).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. WANG et al., “Ephrin-B2 controls VEGF-induced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis,” Nature 465 7297, 483 (2010).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. M. BONEM, Problem Solving for Process Operators and Specialists, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011).
An edited book
G. W. FERNANDES and J. C. SANTOS, Eds., Neotropical Insect Galls, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
D. KUNDU and S. NANDI, “Asymptotic Properties,” in Statistical Signal Processing: Frequency Estimation, S. Nandi, Ed., pp. 45–78, Springer India, New Delhi (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fusion Science and Technology.

Blog post
D. ANDREW, “16 Events From 2016 That Should Give You Hope For The Future,” IFLScience; 3 January 2017; (current as of Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, “University Funding: Patterns of Distribution of Federal Research Funds to Universities,” RCED-87-67BR, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1987).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. M. COOK, “An Examination of the Proportion of Special Education Students in Single-Parent Homes in Comparison to Regular Education Students in Similar Households,” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. M. NIR, “Fire’s Death Toll: ‘5 Amazing People Full of Life,’ the Oldest of Them 20,” in New York Times, p. A19 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFusion Science and Technology
AbbreviationFusion Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)1536-1055
ISSN (online)1943-7641
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Other styles