How to format your references using the Fusion Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fusion Science and Technology (FST). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. A. SOMORJAI, “On the move,” Nature 430 7001, 730 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
J. BRAINE and F. HERPIN, “Molecular hydrogen beyond the optical edge of an isolated spiral galaxy,” Nature 432 7015, 369 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
A. H. BERGER, A. G. KNUDSON, and P. P. PANDOLFI, “A continuum model for tumour suppression,” Nature 476 7359, 163 (2011).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. CHIBA et al., “Electrical manipulation of magnetization reversal in a ferromagnetic semiconductor,” Science 301 5635, 943 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. TOUTAIN and A. MINABURO, Local Networks and the Internet, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013).
An edited book
A.-H. DEDIU et al., Eds., Theory and Practice of Natural Computing: Second International Conference, TPNC 2013, Cáceres, Spain, December 3-5, 2013, Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013).
A chapter in an edited book
K. KARASAWA et al., “Structure Specific Atlas Generation and Its Application to Pancreas Segmentation from Contrasted Abdominal CT Volumes,” in Medical Computer Vision: Algorithms for Big Data: International Workshop, MCV 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015, Munich, Germany, October 9, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, B. Menze et al., Eds., pp. 47–56, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fusion Science and Technology.

Blog post
R. ANDREWS, “Turtles Evolved Shells To Help Them Dig, Not For Protection,” IFLScience; 18 July 2016;; (current as of Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, “Space Transportation: Progress of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Program,” T-NSIAD-99-243, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. E. MITCHELL, “Job satisfaction and burnout among foreign -trained nurses in Saudi Arabia: A mixed-method study,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
F. ROBLES, L. ALVAREZ, and V. YEE, “Entire State Shudders as Hurricane Irma Roars Into Florida,” in New York Times, p. A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFusion Science and Technology
AbbreviationFusion Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)1536-1055
ISSN (online)1943-7641
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Other styles