How to format your references using the Frontiers in Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kendall, K. (2000). Hydrocarbon fuels. Hopes for a flame-free future. Nature 404, 233, 235.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoon, S.-J., and Lee, Y.-W. (2002). An aligned stream of low-metallicity clusters in the halo of the Milky Way. Science 297, 578–581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perryman, S. A. M., Clark, S. J., and West, J. S. (2014). Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit. Sci. Rep. 4, 6568.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Intlekofer, A. M., Shih, A. H., Wang, B., Nazir, A., Rustenburg, A. S., Albanese, S. K., et al. (2018). Acquired resistance to IDH inhibition through trans or cis dimer-interface mutations. Nature 559, 125–129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrington, P. J. (2010). Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry for Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dragan, V. (2013). Mathematical Methods in Robust Control of Linear Stochastic Systems. 2nd ed. 2013. , eds. T. Morozan and A.-M. Stoica New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Díaz, C., and Martín, F. (2013). “Using Molecular Reflectivity to Explore Reaction Dynamics at Metal Surfaces,” in Dynamics of Gas-Surface Interactions: Atomic-level Understanding of Scattering Processes at Surfaces Springer Series in Surface Sciences., eds. R. Díez Muiño and H. F. Busnengo (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 75–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Inflammation.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017). Giant Craters Created By Enormous Seafloor Methane Explosions From The Last Ice Age. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Export Controls: International Space Station Technology Transfers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivas, V. E. (2014). Art appreciation program for homeless children: A grant proposal project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lipton, E., Barringer, F., and Walsh, M. W. (2012). Flood Insurance, Already Fragile, Faces New Stress. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kendall, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kendall, 2000; Yoon and Lee, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yoon and Lee, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Intlekofer et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Inflammation
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

Other styles