How to format your references using the Frontiers in Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leary, R. H. (2001). Energy landscapes. Flirting with catastrophe. Science 293, 2013–2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rivkin, R. B., and Legendre, L. (2001). Biogenic carbon cycling in the upper ocean: effects of microbial respiration. Science 291, 2398–2400.
A journal article with 3 authors
Didham, R. K., Ewers, R. M., and Gemmell, N. J. (2005). Comment on “Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands.” Science 307, 1412; author reply 1412.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bakan, G., Khan, N., Silva, H., and Gokirmak, A. (2013). High-temperature thermoelectric transport at small scales: thermal generation, transport and recombination of minority carriers. Sci. Rep. 3, 2724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, T. A. (2010). Guide to LEED® 2009 Estimating and Preconstruction Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Maziero, C. A., Gabriel Silva, J., Andrade, A. M. S., and Assis Silva, F. M. de eds. (2005). Dependable Computing: Second Latin-American Symposium, LADC 2005, Salvador, Brazil, October 25-28, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Canetti, R., Dodis, Y., Pass, R., and Walfish, S. (2007). “Universally Composable Security with Global Setup,” in Theory of Cryptography: 4th Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, February 21-24, 2007. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., ed. S. P. Vadhan (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 61–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Inflammation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). DNA Tests Show Elephant Ivory Poaching has Two Main Hotspots. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Content Analysis: A Methodology for Structuring and Analyzing Written Material. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Anda, B. (2012). Factors that contribute to the stigma of mental illness.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tackett, M. (2017). Winning? Political Bellwether Grows Tired Waiting for Trump to Deliver. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leary, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Leary, 2001; Rivkin and Legendre, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rivkin and Legendre, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bakan et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Inflammation
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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