How to format your references using the Frontiers in Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, C. (2006). ClC chloride channels viewed through a transporter lens. Nature 440, 484–489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, R. I., and Nicoll, R. A. (2002). Endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. Science 296, 678–682.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakagaki, T., Yamada, H., and Tóth, A. (2000). Maze-solving by an amoeboid organism. Nature 407, 470.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rieseberg, L. H., Raymond, O., Rosenthal, D. M., Lai, Z., Livingstone, K., Nakazato, T., et al. (2003). Major ecological transitions in wild sunflowers facilitated by hybridization. Science 301, 1211–1216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Serval, J.-F., and Tranié, J.-P. (2014). The Monetary System. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Erçetin, Ş. Ş. ed. (2016). Women Leaders in Chaotic Environments: Examinations of Leadership Using Complexity Theory. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Amesbury, R. (2008). “The virtues of belief: toward a non-evidentialist ethics of belief-formation,” in Ethics of Belief: Essays in Tribute to D.Z. Phillips, eds. E. T. Long and P. Horn (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 25–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Inflammation.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). 240-Million-Year-Old “Grandfather Turtle” Was Just Starting to Have a Shell. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). NASA: Projects Need More Disciplined Oversight and Management to Address Key Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Makovec, M. G. (2008). A study of the factors predicting attrition and contributing to the attrition rate of high school teachers in Hampton Roads, Virginia.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R. W. (2007). Washington’s Secret Gun Files. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Wilson and Nicoll, 2002; Miller, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Nicoll, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Rieseberg et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Inflammation
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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