How to format your references using the Frontiers in Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tylianakis, J. M. (2009). Ecology. Warming up food webs. Science 323, 1300–1301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Q., and Wang, X.-B. (2014). Simulating of the measurement-device independent quantum key distribution with phase randomized general sources. Sci. Rep. 4, 4612.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galy, V., Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B., and Eglinton, T. (2015). Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion. Nature 521, 204–207.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sciaini, G., Harb, M., Kruglik, S. G., Payer, T., Hebeisen, C. T., zu Heringdorf, F.-J. M., et al. (2009). Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth. Nature 458, 56–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Radcliff, P. B. (2017). Modern Spain. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bugdol, M. (2015). Integrated Management Systems. , ed. P. Jedynak Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Semins, M. J., and Matlaga, B. R. (2013). “Post-percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Drainage,” in Surgical Management of Urolithiasis: Percutaneous, Shockwave and Ureteroscopy, eds. S. Y. Nakada and M. S. Pearle (New York, NY: Springer), 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Inflammation.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). New Tomato Grows All Night in Fake Light. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Information Technology: Library of Congress Needs to Implement Recommendations to Address Management Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, L. (2017). The Relationship between Mock Jurors’ Locus of Control, Belief in a Just World, and an NGRI Verdict.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017). This Jet Still Answers to ‘Coach.’ New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tylianakis, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Tylianakis, 2009; Wang and Wang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Wang, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sciaini et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Inflammation
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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