How to format your references using the Frontiers in Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown, R. H. (2009). Medicine. A reinnervating microRNA. Science 326, 1494–1495.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heinberg, R., and Fridley, D. (2010). The end of cheap coal. Nature 468, 367–369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chiou, P. Y., Ohta, A. T., and Wu, M. C. (2005). Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images. Nature 436, 370–372.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanvir, N. R., Chapman, R., Levan, A. J., and Priddey, R. S. (2005). An origin in the local Universe for some short gamma-ray bursts. Nature 438, 991–993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cazdyn, E., and Szeman, I. (2011). After Globalization. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schousboe, I., and Winther-Lindqvist, D. eds. (2013). Children’s Play and Development: Cultural-Historical Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Govindarajulu, N. S., and Bringsjord, S. (2015). “Ethical Regulation of Robots Must Be Embedded in Their Operating Systems,” in A Construction Manual for Robots’ Ethical Systems: Requirements, Methods, Implementations Cognitive Technologies., ed. R. Trappl (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 85–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Inflammation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). World’s Most Powerful Laser Is 2,000 Trillion Watts – But What’s It For? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Aviation Safety: Installation of Smoke Detection and Fire Suppression Systems in U.S. Transport Aircraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Onal, B. (2015). RFID feasibility study for check-out stations at supermarkets.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). Saves Bring Paydays, but Their Value Is Subject to Debate. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brown, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Brown, 2009; Heinberg and Fridley, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heinberg and Fridley, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanvir et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Inflammation
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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