How to format your references using the Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Langenberg, H., 2002. Climate of care for a changing world. Nature 417, 4–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morton, J.J.L., Mølmer, K., 2015. Quantum information: Spin memories in for the long haul. Nature 517, 153–154.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park, S.-H., Zarrinpar, A., Lim, W.A., 2003. Rewiring MAP kinase pathways using alternative scaffold assembly mechanisms. Science 299, 1061–1064.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jovanovic, K., Gonsalves, D., Da Costa Dias, B., Moodley, K., Reusch, U., Knackmuss, S., Penny, C., Weinberg, M.S., Little, M., Weiss, S.F.T., 2013. Anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs impede amyloid beta shedding in Alzheimer’s disease. Sci. Rep. 3, 2699.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitam, S., Mellouk, A., 2014. Bio-Inspired Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zhang, L., Song, X., Wu, Y. (Eds.), 2016. Theory, Methodology, Tools and Applications for Modeling and Simulation of Complex Systems: 16th Asia Simulation Conference and SCS Autumn Simulation Multi-Conference, AsiaSim/SCS AutumnSim 2016, Beijing, China, October 8-11, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Yousaf, J., Li, J., Zhang, H., Hou, L., 2012. Exploration and Visualization of Administrator Network in Wikipedia, in: Sheng, Q.Z., Wang, G., Jensen, C.S., Xu, G. (Eds.), Web Technologies and Applications: 14th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2012, Kunming, China, April 11-13, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 46–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Venus Has Massive Planet-Sized Explosions of Weather [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. The Centralizing Effects of Austerity on the Intergovernmental System (No. 115658). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olch, R., 2010. Low cost/no cost quality of life programs in non-profit theatre (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. Election Influence, Separate and Unequal. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Langenberg, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Langenberg, 2002; Morton and Mølmer, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morton and Mølmer, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Jovanovic et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene
ISSN (print)0378-1119
General Medicine

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