How to format your references using the Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Catterall, W.A., 2001. Physiology. A one-domain voltage-gated sodium channel in bacteria. Science 294, 2306–2308.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luan, B., Robbins, M.O., 2005. The breakdown of continuum models for mechanical contacts. Nature 435, 929–932.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Roy, P., Daley, A.C., Briggs, D.E.G., 2015. Anomalocaridid trunk limb homology revealed by a giant filter-feeder with paired flaps. Nature 522, 77–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barker, S., Diz, P., Vautravers, M.J., Pike, J., Knorr, G., Hall, I.R., Broecker, W.S., 2009. Interhemispheric Atlantic seesaw response during the last deglaciation. Nature 457, 1097–1102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weber, P., Simon, C., 2016. Benefits of Bayesian Network Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wallenberger, F.T., Bingham, P.A. (Eds.), 2010. Fiberglass and Glass Technology: Energy-Friendly Compositions and Applications. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Brust, D., Hamann, A., Osiewacz, H.D., 2009. Apoptosis in Fungal Development and Ageing, in: Anke, T., Weber, D. (Eds.), Physiology and Genetics: Selected Basic and Applied Aspects. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. $250 Million Increase To NASA’s Budget Next Year [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. NASA Budget: Carryover Balances in Selected Programs (No. T-NSIAD-96-207). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Gilder, B.J., 2012. American students’ communication abroad: Factors promoting and inhibiting interactions with host nationals (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2002. Reminiscing About a Woman With Quirks as Well as Causes. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Catterall, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Catterall, 2001; Luan and Robbins, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luan and Robbins, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Barker et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene
ISSN (print)0378-1119
General Medicine

Other styles