How to format your references using the Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jenkins, A., 2004. Graduate journal: one of those days. Nature 427, 870.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miguel, M.-C., Zapperi, S., 2006. Materials science. Fluctuations in plasticity at the microscale. Science 312, 1149–1150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, J., Bai, L., Wang, M.D., 2013. Transcription under torsion. Science 340, 1580–1583.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
von Dassow, G., Meir, E., Munro, E.M., Odell, G.M., 2000. The segment polarity network is a robust developmental module. Nature 406, 188–192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French, B.A., 2016. Chronicles Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Yao, J. (Ed.), 2010. Web-based Support Systems, Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciglič, R., Perko, D., 2015. Modelling as a Method for Evaluating Natural Landscape Typology: The Case of Slovenia, in: Luc, M., Somorowska, U., Szmańda, J.B. (Eds.), Landscape Analysis and Planning: Geographical Perspectives, Springer Geography. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. New Horned Dino Rocked a Crown-Shaped Frill [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Identified Ways to Mitigate Data Gaps, but Contingency Plans and Schedules Require Further Attention (No. GAO-13-676). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pavuluri, V.K., 2014. Field Oriented Control of Induction Motors Based on DSP Controller (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2000. Battle Lines on Broadway: Little Slips vs. Big Type. New York Times 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jenkins, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Jenkins, 2004; Miguel and Zapperi, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miguel and Zapperi, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (von Dassow et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene
ISSN (print)0378-1119
General Medicine

Other styles