How to format your references using the Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmitz, R.J., 2014. Genetics. The secret garden--epigenetic alleles underlie complex traits. Science 343, 1082–1083.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao, K.Q., Shubin, N.H., 2001. Late Jurassic salamanders from northern China. Nature 410, 574–577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sevenster, D., Beckers, T., Kindt, M., 2013. Prediction error governs pharmacologically induced amnesia for learned fear. Science 339, 830–833.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hausmann, D., Becker, J., Wang, S., Gordon, R.G., 2002. Rapid vapor deposition of highly conformal silica nanolaminates. Science 298, 402–406.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiMaio, M.S., Fox, J.E., Mahoney, M.J., 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases & Clinical Challenges. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Levison, S.W. (Ed.), 2006. Mammalian Subventricular Zones: Their Roles in Brain Development, Cell Replacement and Disease. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Kerr, K.M., 2012. The Classification of Pre-invasive Lesions, in: Cagle, P.T., Allen, T.C., Beasley, M.B., Chirieac, L.R., Dacic, S., Borczuk, A.C., Kerr, K.M. (Eds.), Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer, Molecular Pathology Library. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 35–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Study Concludes That Women Who Squirt During Sex Are Actually Peeing [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Accessible Communications: FCC Should Evaluate the Effectiveness of Its Public Outreach Efforts (No. GAO-15-574). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moua, P., 2009. Differential functions of the kinesin-1 tail in Drosophila melanogaster transport processes (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gaitskill, M., 2015. An Unknowable Truth. New York Times M2174.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmitz, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gao and Shubin, 2001; Schmitz, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gao and Shubin, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hausmann et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene
ISSN (print)0378-1119
General Medicine

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