How to format your references using the Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singer, P.W., 2011. Military robotics and ethics: a world of killer apps. Nature 477, 399–401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomkins, J.L., Brown, G.S., 2004. Population density drives the local evolution of a threshold dimorphism. Nature 431, 1099–1103.
A journal article with 3 authors
Didenko, Y.T., McNamara, W.B., 3rd, Suslick, K.S., 2000. Molecular emission from single-bubble sonoluminescence. Nature 407, 877–879.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choi, S.H., Hyeon, D.Y., Lee, L.H., Park, S.J., Han, S., Lee, I.C., Hwang, D., Nam, H.G., 2014. Gene duplication of type-B ARR transcription factors systematically extends transcriptional regulatory structures in Arabidopsis. Sci. Rep. 4, 7197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bain, B.J., Wild, B.J., Stephens, A.D., Phelan, L.A., 2010. Variant Haemoglobins. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Okereke, O.I. (Ed.), 2015. Prevention of Late-Life Depression: Current Clinical Challenges and Priorities, Aging Medicine. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Yu, H., Wang, Y., 2014. Nonvolatile Circuit Design, in: Wang, Y. (Ed.), Design Exploration of Emerging Nano-Scale Non-Volatile Memory. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 85–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Spectacular New Image Shows Planet Formation In Incredible Detail [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Improve Key Project Management Practices for Its Modernization Efforts (No. GAO-13-455). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Song, H.-J., 2014. Strategic Constraints of Economic Interdependence: South Korea’s Changing Strategy in the Face of a Rising China (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. Trump Claims Undue Credit On an Arsenal. New York Times A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Singer, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Singer, 2011; Tomkins and Brown, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomkins and Brown, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Choi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene
ISSN (print)0378-1119
General Medicine

Other styles