How to format your references using the Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C., 2005. Genomics: genotyping gets up to speed. Nature 435, 992.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brovkin, V., Claussen, M., 2008. Comment on “Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years.” Science 322, 1326; author reply 1326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conard, N.J., Malina, M., Münzel, S.C., 2009. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany. Nature 460, 737–740.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nomura, K., Ohta, H., Ueda, K., Kamiya, T., Hirano, M., Hosono, H., 2003. Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor. Science 300, 1269–1272.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kobilinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J., 2004. DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nee, A.Y.C. (Ed.), 2015. Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Goedertier, S., Mues, C., Vanthienen, J., 2007. Specifying Process-Aware Access Control Rules in SBVR, in: Paschke, A., Biletskiy, Y. (Eds.), Advances in Rule Interchange and Applications: International Symposium, RuleML 2007, Orlando, Florida, October 25-26, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Brain-Damaged Turtle Takes Trip To Hospital For A CT Scan [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Airline Competition: DOT’s Implementation of Airline Regulatory Authority (No. RCED-89-93). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Michaels, J.L., 2009. Changing cooperation to competition disrupts attitudes and valence: First test of a dynamical model (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2011. Irish Soda Bread, Family Style. New York Times NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Brovkin and Claussen, 2008; Smith, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brovkin and Claussen, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Nomura et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene
ISSN (print)0378-1119
General Medicine

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